Archive | DEV-09802

Moving Forward with Arduino – Chapter 19 – GPS part II

Learn more about Arduino and GPS in chapter nineteen of a series originally titled “Getting Started with Arduino!” by John Boxall – A tutorial on the Arduino universe. The first chapter is here, the complete series is detailed here.

Updated 24/01/2013

In this instalment we will continue to examine the use of our GPS system and Arduino through creating two more applications. Some of them may seem simple, but we will build on them later on to make more complex things. To review previous information, the first GPS instalment was chapter seventeen.

“Household official time”

At home we often have various discussions about what the actual time is. At first it sounds silly, but when you have clocks on the microwave, kitchen wall, a wristwatch, mobile phone, clock-radio, and so on – things can get a little out of hand. And my better half has all her clocks ten minutes fast. Insanity may prevail! So let’s make a nice big LED-display reference clock – something that wouldn’t look out of place in a radio or television studio:

Then when people start arguing over the time, you can point at your new clock and smile. From a hardware perspective, we will combine three or four things: our Arduino board, our GPS system, and the MAX7219 display driver. We will need the following items:

  • Arduino Uno or compatible board
  • the GPS shield bundle
  • Maxim MAX7219 display driver IC
  • two four-digit, seven-segment LED displays (common cathode). You could also rig up four separate digits with some patience;
  • one 1 kilo ohm resistor
  • one 10 kilo ohm resistor
  • one single pole, double-throw switch
  • a nice breadboard and some connecting wire
  • a separate 5V power supply – all those LED segments are thirsty, the completed clock uses under 350 milliamps with a brightness setting of 8:

exam19p1currss

Here is the schematic:

exam19p1schematicss

 

Although the sketch (download) may seem quite complex, it is just made up of things we have already examined in the past. The only unfamiliar part could be the MAX7219 display driver IC, which in itself is quite easy to use. There is a full part review and explanation here. It is most likely that everyone will have different LED display units, as the 4-digit modules can be hard to track for some people or too expensive –  so some more explanation is in order.

You will need common-cathode display modules. If you line the digits up from left to right, they will be numbered zero to nine with respect to the MAX7219 – so connect MAX7219 pin 2 to the cathode of your first display, and so on. With regards to the anodes (a~g and dp [decimal point]) – link each anode type together.

For example, if you have eight separate 7-segment display modules, connect each ‘a’ pin together, then to MAX pin 14. And so on. Here is the board layout – a real mess:

exam19p1boardss

And our action video:

An interesting twist you might find of interest is the function:

Which allows you to alter the brightness of the LED display(s). The range is 0 to 18 – in my examples it has been set to 8. You could then make your clock dim the display brightness between (for example) 11pm and 5am – so when you wake up in the middle of the night the display won’t act like a frickin’  laser-beam burning into your eyeballs. Furthermore, dropping the brightness reduces the power consumption.

gps_satellite_nasa_art-iif

 “You went… where?”

Now it is time for what most of you have been waiting for – making a GPS tracking device. Now before you get too excited, it would be proper to make sure you have the permission of someone before you track them. From a hardware perspective this example is a lot easier that you think – it is just the Arduino board, GPS shield and microSD shield. You will need to install TinyGPS library if not already installed.

Then, we will need the following items:

  • Arduino Uno or compatible board
  • the GPS shield bundle
  • microSD shield and a matching memory card up to 2GB in size
  • portable power, for example an alkaline 9V PP3 battery and adaptor cable

Download the Example 19.2 sketch from here.

Don’t forget to format the microSD card to FAT16 before use. Once power is applied, the system will take a position reading and write it to the microSD card every 30 seconds. You can alter this period by changing the value in the delay() function at the end of  void getgps(TinyGPS &gps). The text file is closed after every write, so you can just turn it off when finished then take the memory card to the computer to copy the data.

Although the hardware wasn’t that interesting to plug together, what can be done with it and the data it captures is quite fascinating. To generate some sample data, I have taken the hardware for a walk to the post office. We will now open the file produced by our hardware and examine it further. If you would like to follow along, you can download the file from here.

The file is a typical, comma-delimited text file. You can examine it further using common spreadsheet software such as LibreOffice Calc. For example, if you open the file of GPS data from here, you will be presented with the following window:

import

You can see that the data delimits quite easily. Just click “OK” and the file will be presented to you.

gpslogcsv

So as you can see, there is time, date (remember – GMT), latitude and longitude, my speed (with a couple of anomalies) and random sensor data results (see the sketch). We can have this data converted into a much more useful form by using the GPS Visualiser website. Save the data as a .csv file. Then visit http://www.gpsvisualizer.com/, and use the Get Started Now box in the middle of the web page. Select Google Maps as the output format, then upload the file. This will result in the following:

gpswalk

Just like normal Google Maps there are many display options you can choose from, and the GPS Visualiser web site has many tutorials about making the most of their service. If you look in detail you will see some “jittering” along parts of the track that are not representative of my movements (though I had just taken my morning coffee). This could be the result of the receiver module moving about in all three axes during my walk, one would imagine it would be a lot smoother inside a motor vehicle. So have fun with that.

LEDborder

Have fun and keep checking into tronixstuff.com. Why not follow things on twitterGoogle+, subscribe  for email updates or RSS using the links on the right-hand column, or join our Google Group – dedicated to the projects and related items on this website. Sign up – it’s free, helpful to each other –  and we can all learn something.

Posted in arduino, COM-09622, DEV-09802, GPS, learning electronics, lesson, microcontrollers, RTL-10709, tronixstuff, tutorial2 Comments

Part review – microSD card Arduino shield

Hello readers

Today we are going to look at a micro SD card Arduino shield. The reason to use such a thing is to have a storage dump for any data that you generate with your Arduino project that can accept a very large amount of data – up to several gigabytes if you have a large enough micro SD card. With the appropriate sketch it is also possible to read from the card, navigate file directories and so on, but to keep it simple I am just going to examine the most popular aspect – writing our data to the card. However if enough people ask me I will spend the time to figure out the rest.

Initially I imagined this project would be quite difficult, but after some research it was fine. You’re lucky to not have to do the work completed by myself 🙂

Anyhow, moving on. The shield is shipped in the usual minimalist packaging, a plastic bag and the shield:

shield

You will need to supply your own header sockets or pins and fit them  yourself. Then solder away. Before you know it, your shield is complete:

soldered

The red board colour is a nice contrast with the blue of my Eleven. Now of course you will need a micro SD card to write your data to. Contrary to popular belief you can use SDHC micro SD cards that are larger than two gigabytes in size. First of all, you will need to format your micro SD card. Check the instructions or help system of your computer’s operating system to determine how to do this. However ensure that the format type is either FAT32 or FAT 16, not MacOS or ext3 or NTFS, etc. Next we need to prepare the Arduino IDE to work with the shield. There is a library of functions that needs to be installed for the project to work. Bill Greman has written an excellent library to use, download it from here.

On the software side of things, please note that the shield requires exclusive use of digital pins 10, 11, 12 and 13 for the SPI interface to the card reader. The next thing to do is test our new shield. Plug the shield into your Arduino Duemilanove or compatible board, then the micro SD card into the slot. It will need a small amount of pressure, as it “clicks” in. Also note that in order to remove the card, you push it and it pops out a little. Don’t try to just pull it out with your thumbnail. It is also wise to only insert and remove the card when the power is off.

Assuming you have installed your library correctly, fire up the Arduino IDE and select File menu > examples > SDFat > SDFatinfo. Plug in your shield, upload the sketch, then hit the serial monitor button. Enter a character and press enter – you should be presented with something like:

sdfatinfosketchscreendump

This display shows various data about the card, the formatting type and so on. If it did not work, check your soldering on the shield, re-format the card with FAT16 or FAT32, reseat the shield into the Arduino, reconnect to the PC and try again.

Next it is time to write something to the card, to get a feel for how things work. Run the “SDFatwrite” example, open the serial monitor box, enter a character and press enter. Now open the resulting text file found on your micro SD on your computer. You should have something that looks like:

sdafatwrite

There really is a lot of code in the demonstration sketch, but to make things easier to adapt, have a look at line 90 to 94 of the sketch.

The writeString() function writes text to the file, just like Serial.write() would to the screen. The writeNumber() function writes integers, or unsigned integers to the file. And the writeCRLF() function starts a new line in the file. You can basically copy and paste the code into your own sketch and use these functions, as long as your variable types are suitable for the functions.

In saying that, I have made a demonstration sketch to prove this. Using the real time clock shield from a previous article, an Analog Devices TMP36, and a 560 ohm resistor/LED on digital pin 2, we can make a temperature logger with time and date. This involves a nice stack of Arduino goodness:

triplestack

and a solderless breadboard with the temperature sensor and the LED setup. If you had a really small breadboard, you could plonk it into the micro SD shield and save space. Alas, mine did not fit.

demosetup

But it worked. Now for the sketch – you can download it here: demonstationsketch.pdf. If you examine the sketch I have filled it with comments and points of interest. If you are unsure of how the real time clock code works, please visit here. Fore more information about the temperature sensor, please visit here. There was no need to compute Fahnrenheit in the sketch, as this can be done later on in a spreadsheet, saving you sketch memory and storage space.

The purpose of the LED is to let you know when the sketch is about to start, and when it has finished. Once the blinking starts at the end of the sketch, you can power off and remove the micro SD card as the program has written and closed the file. If you do this before the sketch has finished, you may corrupt the file and lose your data. Here is an example of the file from the demonstration sketch:

tempdemoscreenshot

Notice how there are distinct columns between the data. This is important as later you may want to import the text file into a spreadsheet to analyse your data. For example, if you use the Insert > Sheet from file… command in the Openoffice.org spreadsheet, you can select which columns of data to import, like this:

ooossimport

Which will leave you with nicely delimited data that you can twist around to your heart’s content:

ssresult

In this spreadsheet I have calculated the minimum, maximum and average temperature – and in Fahrenheit as well. By just capturing the raw data using the micro SD shield you can offload a lot of processing work from the Arduino and onto your personal computer  – a much more efficient solution. The spreadsheet has been placed in the files section of our Google Group.

So there you have it. You now have the tool and an understanding of how to capture data from the real world, and bring it home to analyse and make decisions from it. The possibilities are almost limitless, using a wide range of sensors, user inputs, even GPS modules, you can get a better understanding of the world around you. High resolution photos are available on flickr.

So have fun and keep checking into tronixstuff.com. Why not follow things on twitterGoogle+, subscribe  for email updates or RSS using the links on the right-hand column, or join our Google Group – dedicated to the projects and related items on this website. Sign up – it’s free, helpful to each other –  and we can all learn something.

Posted in arduino, DEV-09802, lesson, part review, PRT-10007, sd card, tutorial18 Comments


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