Tutorial: Arduino and Infra-red control

Learn how to use Arduino and infra-red remote controls in chapter thirty-two of a series originally titled “Getting Started/Moving Forward with Arduino!” by John Boxall – A tutorial on the Arduino universe. The first chapter is here, the complete series is detailed here.

Updated 10/07/2013

In this article we will look at something different to the usual, and hopefully very interesting and useful – interfacing our Arduino systems with infra-red receivers. Why would we want to do this? To have another method to control our Ardiuno-based systems, using simple infra-red remote controls.

A goal of this article is to make things as easy as possible, so we will not look into the base detail of how things work – instead we will examine how to get things done. If you would like a full explanation of infra-red, perhaps see the page on Wikipedia. The remote controls you use for televisions and so on transmit infra-red beam which is turned on and off at a very high speed – usually 38 kHz, to create bits of serial data which are then interpreted by the receiving unit. As the wavelength of infra-red light is too high for human eyes, we cannot see it. However using a digital camera – we can. Here is a demonstration video of IR codes being sent via a particularly fun kit – the adafruit TV-B-Gone:

Now to get started. You will need a remote control, and a matching IR receiver device. The hardware and library used in this tutorial only  supports NEC, Sony SIRC, Philips RC5, Philips RC6, and raw IR protocols. Or you can purchase a matching set for a good price, such as this example:

irpackage

Or you may already have a spare remote laying around somewhere. I kept this example from my old Sony Trinitron CRT TV after it passed away:

sonyremote1

It will more than suffice for a test remote. Now for a receiver – if you have purchased the remote/receiver set, you have a nice unit that is ready to be wired into your Arduino, and also a great remote that is compact and easy to carry about. To connect your receiver module – as per the PCB labels, connect Vcc to Arduino 5V, GND to Arduino GND, and D (the data line) to Arduino digital pin 11.

Our examples use pin 11, however you can alter that later on. If you are using your own remote control, you will just need a receiver module. These are very cheap, and an ideal unit is the Vishay TSOP4138 (data sheet .pdf). These are available from element-14 and the other usual retail suspects. They are also dead-simple to use. Looking at the following example:

From left to right the pins are data, GND and Vcc (to Arduino +5V). So it can be easily wired into a small breadboard for testing purposes. Once you have your remote and receiver module connected, you need to take care of the software side of things. There is a new library to download and install, download it from here. Please note that library doesn’t work for Arduino Leonardo, Freetronics Leostick, etc with ATmega32U4. Instead, use this library (and skip the modification steps below). Extract the IRremote folder and place into the ..\arduinoxxx\libraries folder. Then restart your Arduino IDE if it was already open.

Using Arduino IDE v1.0 or greater? Open the file “IRRemoteInt.h” in the library folder, and change the line

Then save and close the file, restart the Arduino IDE and you’re set.

With our first example, we will receive the commands from our remote control and display them on the serial monitor:

Open the serial monitor box, point your remote control to the receiver and start pressing away. You should see something like this:

What have we here? Lots of hexadecimal numbers. Did you notice that each button on your remote control resulted in an individual hexadecimal number? I hope so. The number FFFFFFFF means that the button was held down. The remote used was from a yum-cha discount TV. Now I will try again with the Sony remote:

This time, each button press resulted in the same code three times. This is peculiar to Sony IR systems. However nothing to worry about. Looking back at the sketch for example 32.1, the

section is critical – if a code has been received, the code within the if statement is executed. The hexadecimal code is stored in the variable

with which we can treat as any normal hexadecimal number. At this point, press a few buttons on your remote control, and take a note of the matching hexadecimal codes that relate to each button. We will need these codes for the next example…

Now we know how to convert the infra-red magic into numbers, we can create sketches to have our Arduino act on particular commands. As the IR library returns hexadecimal numbers, we can use simple decision functions to take action. In the following example, we use switch…case to examine each inbound code, then execute a function. In this case we have an LCD module connected via I2C, and the sketch is programmed to understand fifteen Sony IR codes. If you don’t have an LCD you could always send the output to the serial monitor. If you are using the DFRobot I2C LCD display, you need to use Arduino v23.

Furthermore you can substitute your own values if not using Sony remote controls. Finally, this sketch has a short loop after the translateIR(); function call which ignores the following two codes – we do this as Sony remotes send the same code three times. Again. you can remove this if necessary. Note that when using hexadecimal numbers in our sketch we preced them with 0x:

And here it is in action:


You might be thinking “why would I want to make things appear on the LCD like that?”. The purpose of the example is to show how to react to various IR commands. You can replace the LCD display functions with other functions of your choosing.

At the start working with infra-red may have seemed to be complex, but with the previous two examples it should be quite simple by now. So there you have it, another useful way to control our Arduino systems. Hopefully you have some ideas on how to make use of this technology. In future articles we will examine creating and sending IR codes from our Arduino. Furthermore, a big thanks to Ken Shirriff for his Arduino library.

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Have fun and keep checking into tronixstuff.com. Why not follow things on twitterGoogle+, subscribe  for email updates or RSS using the links on the right-hand column, or join our Google Group – dedicated to the projects and related items on this website. Sign up – it’s free, helpful to each other –  and we can all learn something.

Posted in arduino, control, DFR0107, dfrobot, education, infrared, IR, learning electronics, lesson, microcontrollers, remote, tronixstuff, tutorial17 Comments

Getting Started with Arduino! – Chapter Six

This is part of a series titled “Getting Started with Arduino!” – A tutorial on the Arduino microcontrollers. The first chapter is here, and the complete index is here.

Welcome back fellow arduidans!

Hello once again to our regular Arduino tutorial instalment. In this chapter we are up to all sorts of things, including: distance sensing, using prototyping shields, even more shiftiness with shift registers and 4-digit 7-segment displays, and some exercises to refresh and expand your knowledge. Wow – let’s get cracking…

Do you know how to keep your distance? Some people do, some do not. The same goes for mechatronical things (i.e. robots, those little autonomous vacuum cleaners, etc). So to solve that problem you can integrate a distance sensor into your design. Hopefully by following this section you will gain an understanding of such sensors, and be able to make use of them later on in your own projects. Anyhow, today we are looking at the Sharp GP2Y0A21YK0F infra-red distance sensor. What a mouthful… The funny thing is that it looks like a robot head:

sharpsensorsmall

That white JST connector is for three leads, +5V, GND, and analogue out. When purchasing it you should also get a matching lead to save time and mucking about.

How it works is quite simple (I must stop writing that, some things are not as simple as they seem…) – the sensor contains an infra-red transmitter and a receiver. It returns a voltage that is relative to the distance between itself and the object in front of it. This output voltage is inversely proportional to the distance; which is explained better with this graph from the data sheet:

voltagedistance

However it is always fun to test these things out yourself. So I placed a sensor up over my desk, measured out 80cm, and attached the multimeter to the analogue output of the sensor:

sensorchecksmall

A crude setup but effective. I held a white piece of cardboard in front of the sensor, starting from more than one metre away, then moved closer to the minimum, then back out again. As shown in this video clip:

Although watching that multimeter may not have been too interesting, hopefully the next task will be!

Exercise 6.1

Using the values from the graph from the Sharp data sheet (above), make yourself a distance-measuring device. Use an LCD module to display the measurements. Metric and imperial! This shouldn’t be too hard at all, you’re just using one analogue input from the sensor, some basic maths, and displaying some data on an LCD. Furthermore, to make it truly portable, you could wire up a 9v PP3 battery to a DC plug and use it for power. A hint – before calculating distances, run a sketch to just return the analogRead() value from the sensor. Then you can make your own judgement on voltage-distance calculations. To save time I used the Electronic Bricks to rapidly construct this prototype.

You will need:
  • Your standard Arduino setup (computer, cable, Uno or compatible)
  • One parallel LCD display module
  • One Sharp infra-red distance sensor and sensor cable
  • a breadboard and some connecting wire

Anyhow, here is a photo of what I came up with:

exercise6p1small

and the ubiquitous video clip

Finally, my sketch for the solution. You may have to adjust the values in the decision tree for more accuracy. After spending some time with this sensor, I wouldn’t rely on it for exact distance calculations, however it would be very useful for general item detection, air switches and so on. In the next week or two we will examine another type of distance sensor.

What else could this be used for? Robotics sensors, burglar alarms, switching things on and off. Hopefully you have gained some knowledge about this sensor and have some ideas for implementation.

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Now that we have spent a few weeks constructing our prototypes on breadboards and electronic bricks, it is now time to look at how we can do this in a more compact, and/or permanent method. As you already know, the Arduino system allows for “shields”, PCBs that plug on top of your Arduino board to add some sort of extra functionality. One of these was the Electronic Brick chassis, another popular shield is the Ethernet shield.

Moving on…

In previous instalments we have worked with 7-segment LED displays, using up to three at once, being controlled by 74HC595 shift registers. As you may have realised by now that involved a lot of wiring, resistors, time and effort. But what if you need four or more digits? Use an LCD… Maybe. Sometimes you need to use LED displays for aesthetic reasons, price, clarity, or just because you love that LED look. Thankfully you can find four digit displays, instead of having to use 2 x 2 or 4 x 1 digit displays. Let’s have a look at one now:

4dig7segsmall

For the newcomer there would be a surprising lack of pins on this display module. That is a good thing, and a slightly tricky thing – but we can overcome the obstacles and use it very easily. How? Again, with two 74HC595 shift registers and some brainpower. Firstly, let’s have a look at the pins – from left to right they are: E, D, C, G, F, B, A, C1, C2, C3, C4, decimal point, unused, unused. This display is common cathode, so to display (for example) the number 1 on digit 3, you would apply ~+2 volts to pins 6 and 7, and attach ground to pin 10. Very much the same as using a single-digit display, except you need to choose the cathode that corresponds with the digit you wish to use. In this tutorial we are using a Common Cathode unit. Out of curiosity’s sake, here is the data sheet for the module used in this chapter: data sheet.pdf.

Secondly, how are we going to control the cathodes with out Arduino? Current comes out of a cathode, so it would not accept a signal from our digital out pins. What we need to do is have a simple switch on each cathode between the display pin and ground, so we can control which digit we want to use. How can we do this with our Arduino? Easy… we can use a simple NPN transistor as a switch. Remember we did this with a relay in chapter three!

But using 4 digital out pins for cathode control is a waste of pins, we can use our trusty shift register again to control the cathodes. So that means we need two shift registers in total, the first to control the digit (0~9), and the second to switch on the cathode of the position we wish to display our digit in. Time to do it!

The first (left-hand) shift register from the Arduino controls the segments on the display, via 560 ohm resistors. Just like last time. The second (right-hand) shift register controls the cathodes. Pins Q0~Q3 connect to the base of a BC548 transistor via a 1k ohm resistor. The collector of the transistor is connected to the cathode on the display, and the emitter to ground. For example:

example6p1schematicsmall

Note that the schematic above is a guide only. But here it is in real life, below:

example6p1small

After a few projects, wiring up displays and shift registers should be a lot quicker for you now. Here is the matching sketch I came up with for the demonstration video below.

You’d have to admit, even in the year 2010, LED displays still look mesmerising. Or maybe that’s just me! Here is the data sheet display.pdf for the LED display I used. You can use other ones,as long as they are common cathode; just match the LED element pins with your first shift register, and the cathode pins with the second shift register.

But on to making something useful…

Exercise 6.2

Using the hardware from example 6.1 above, create a device that displays the value of an analogue sensor. For example, if we connect a 10k variable resistor to an analogue input, the Arduino will return a reading of between 0 and 1023. From a hardware perspective, all you need to do is add an analogue sensor (e.g. LDR, 10k variable resistor, the infra-red sensor from earlier on, etc.). The software will be a little tricky, but if you completed exercise 5.1, or 5.2 you shouldn’t have a problem at all. As you will be displaying one digit at a time, but very quickly, try to minimise the number of times you clear the display – in doing so you will keep the brightness at a maximum.

You will need:

  • Your standard Arduino setup (computer, cable, Uno or compatible)
  • One 4-digit, 7-segment LED display, common cathode
  • Two 74HC595 shift registers
  • Four BC548 or equivalent NPN transistors
  • 8 x 560 ohm 0.25 W resistors. For use as current limiters between the LED display segments and ground
  • One 10k variable resistor
  • a breadboard and some connecting wire

For motivation, here is a video clip of my result. There are two examples, one with leading zeroes, and one without:

And the sketch as well.

That wasn’t too hard was it? Now that you can use such a display, it will become easier to display output from your various projects. Now on to Chapter 6A.

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In the meanwhile have fun and keep checking into tronixstuff.com. Why not follow things on twitterGoogle+, subscribe  for email updates or RSS using the links on the right-hand column? And join our friendly Google Group – dedicated to the projects and related items on this website. Sign up – it’s free, helpful to each other –  and we can all learn something.

Posted in arduino, distance sensor, education, gp2y0a21yk0f, infrared, IR, lesson, microcontrollers, sharp, tutorial31 Comments


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