Tag Archive | "AC"

Review – Tenma 72-7222 Digital Clamp Multimeter

Hello readers

The purpose of this article is to examine the Tenma 72-7222 Digital Clamp Multimeter supplied for review by element-14/Farnell/Newark. The Tenma is a strongly featured yet inexpensive piece of test equipment – and considerably good value when you consider there is a current clamp for measuring high AC currents. So let’s have a look and see what we have.

Initial Impression

The Tenma arrives in a retail box, and generally nicely packaged. Naturally this has nothing to do with the performance of the meter at all, but at least they made an effort:

Opening up we find a nicely rounded group of items: the meter itself, some no-name AAA cells, test leads, a thermocouple for temperature measurement, a surprisingly articulate and well-written user manual, and the unit itself – all within a nice pouch. Wow – a pouch. Agilent? Fluke? All that money for a DMM and you don’t include a pouch?

Recent test equipment reviewers have made pulling apart the unit part of the review – so here goes… the back comes off easily:

No user-replaceable fuses… instead a PTC. A closer look at the PCB:

A very neat and organised PCB layout. There are plastic tabs that hold the PCB in along with a screw, however the case flexed too much for me to warrant removing the PCB completely. The spring for the clamp meter is locked in nicely and very strong, it won’t give up for a long time. Pulling the clamp base out reveals the rest of the PCB:

Installation of the battery is two stage procedure, first you need to remove a screw and then slide out the rear door:

… then insert the AAA cells into a frame, which is then inserted inside the unit:

The physical feel of the unit is relative to the purchase price, the plastic is simple and could be quite brittle if the unit was dropped from a height. The user manual claims the unit can be dropped from up to a height of one metre. Onto carpet? Yes. Concrete? Perhaps not. However like all test equipment one would hope the user would take care of it whenever possible. The clamp meter is very strong due to the large spring inside the handle, which can be opened up to around 28mm. The included leads are just on one meter long including the length of the probe:

The leads are rated to Category I 1000V (overkill – the meter can’t go that high) and 600 V Category II – “This category refers to local-level electrical distribution, such as that provided by a standard wall outlet or plug in loads (for example, 115 AC voltage for U.S. or 200 AC voltage for Europe). Examples of Measurement Category II are measurements performed on household appliances, portable tools, and similar modules” – definition from from National Instruments.  Unlike discount DMMs from unknown suppliers you can trust the rating to be true – otherwise element-14 wouldn’t be selling it.

Unit Specifications

  • Voltage Measuring Range DC:200mV, 2V, 20V, 200V, 600V
  • Voltage Measuring Range AC:2V, 20V, 200V, 600V
  • Current Measuring Range AC:2A, 20A, 200A, 400A
  • Resistance Measuring Range:200ohm, 2kohm, 20kohm, 200kohm, 2Mohm, 20Mohm
  • Temperature Measuring Range:-40°C to +1000°C
  • DMM Response Type:True RMS
  • DMM Functions:AC Current, AC/DC Voltage, Resistance, Temperature
  • Ranging:Auto
  • Display Count:1999
  • AC Current Range Accuracy:± (1.5% + 5d)
  • AC Voltage Range Accuracy:± (1.2% + 5d)
  • Accuracy:± (1.0% + 3d)
  • Current AC Max:400A
  • Current Range AC:2A, 20A, 200A, 400A
  • DC Voltage Range Accuracy1:± (0.8% + 1d)
  • Resistance Range Accuracy:± (1.0% + 2d)
  • Temperature Measuring Range:-40°C to +1000°C

The only measurement missed out on is DC current, however there is the Tenma 72-7224 which has DC current and frequency ranges. Finally, all the modes and buttons can be selected while holding the meter with one hand – for both left- and right-handed folk.

Measurement experience

Normally I would compare the measurements against my Agilent U1272A, however it’s out to lunch. Instead, a Fluke 233. First, AC voltage from the mains:

Next, a few DC voltage measurements:

Now for some resistance measurements. Higher values near the maximum of 20M Ohm can take around four seconds to measure:

Forward voltage of a 1N4004 diode:

dfv (1)

Now off to the kitchen for some more measurements – first with the thermocouple:

The boiling water test – 100 degrees Celsius (you can also select Fahrenheit if so inclined):

And now to test out the AC current clamp meter function with a 10A kettle at boiling point. First, using the 20A current range:

And then again on the 400A current range:

As always, it’s best to use the multimeter range that more closely corresponds with the current under test. The meter also has a continuity test with a beeper, however it was somewhat slow and would often take around one second to register – so nothing too impressive on that front. The meter can record the maximum value with the grey button, or hold a reading using the yellow button.

Conclusion

The Tenma 72-7222 works as advertised, and as expected. It is a solid little unit that if looked after should last a few years at a minimum. It certainly has a few limitations, such as the 1999 count display, lack of backlight, and the average continuity function. But don’t let that put you off. For the price – under Au$30 – it is a certified deal. If you need a clamp current meter for odd jobs or a casual-use multimeter and you are on a limited budget, the Tenma will certainly prove a worthwhile purchase. Full-size images are available on Flickr.

You can purchase a Tenma 72-7222 from element-14Farnell and Newark.

Thanks for reading! Have fun and keep checking into tronixstuff.com. Why not follow things on twitter, Google+, subscribe  for email updates or RSS using the links on the right-hand column, or join our Google Group – dedicated to the projects and related items on this website. Sign up – it’s free, helpful to each other –  and we can all learn something.

[Note – The Tenma 72-7222 Digital Clamp Multimeter was a promotional consideration from element-14/Farnell/Newark]

Posted in 72-7222, clamp meter, element14, multimeter, review, tenma, test equipmentComments (4)

Tutorial: Control AC outlets via SMS

Learn how to control AC outlets via SMS text message. This is chapter thirty-three of a series originally titled “Getting Started/Moving Forward with Arduino!” by John Boxall – A tutorial on the Arduino universe. The first chapter is here, the complete series is detailed here.

Updated 02/03/2013

Assumed understanding for this article is found in part one. If you have not already done so, please read and understand it.

In this chapter we will continue with the use of the SM5100 cellular shield to turn digital outputs on and off via SMS. However please read chapters twenty-six and twenty-seven first if you are unfamiliar with using the GSM shield with Arduino. As an extension of chapter twenty-seven, we will use our Arduino to turn on or off AC outlets via a common remote-control AC outlet pack. Please note this is more of a commentary of my own experience, and not an exact tutorial. In other words, by reading this I hope you will gain some ideas into doing the necessary modifications yourself and in your own way.

Firstly, we need some remote-control AC outlets. Most electrical stores or giant retail warehouses may have something like this:

originaloutletsss

Nothing too original, just a wireless remote control that can switch on or off receiver outlets on a choice of four radio frequencies. Before moving forward I would like to acknowledge that this article was inspired by the wonderful book Practical Arduino – Cool Projects for Open Source Hardware by Jon Oxer and Hugh Blemings. In chapter two an appliance remote-control system is devised using a similar system.

At first glance the theory behind this project is quite simple – using the hardware in example 27.2, instead of controlling LEDs, activate the buttons on the wireless remote control for the AC outlets – leaving us with AC outlets controlled via SMS. However there are a few things to keep in mind and as discovered during the process, various pitfalls as well.

Before voiding the warranty on your remote control, it would be wise to test the range of the remote control to ensure it will actually work in your situation. I found this was made a lot easier by connecting a radio to the remote outlet – then you can hear when the outlet is on or off. If this is successful, make a note of the amount of time required to press the on and off buttons – as we need to control the delay in our Arduino sketch.

The next step is to crack open the remote control:

originalremotess

… and see what we have to work with:

remotepcbss

Straight away there are two very annoying things – the first being the required power supply – 12 volts; and the second being the type of button contacts on the PCB. As you can see above we only have some minute PCB tracks to solder our wires to. It would be infinitely preferable to have a remote control that uses actual buttons soldered into a PCB, as you can easily desolder and replace them with wires to our Arduino system. However unless you can casually tear open the remote control packaging in the store before purchase, it can be difficult to determine the type of buttons in the remote.

As you can see in the photo above, there is an off and on pad/button each for four channels of receiver. In my example we will only use two of them to save time and space. The next question to solve is how to interface the Arduino digital outputs with the remote control. In Practical Arduino, the authors have used relays, but I don’t have any of those in stock. However I do have a quantity of common 4N25 optocouplers, so will use those instead. An optocoupler can be thought of as an electronic switch that is isolated from what is it controlling – see my article on optocouplers for more information.

Four optocouplers will be required, two for each radio channel. To mount them and the associated circuitry, we will use a blank protoshield and build the Arduino-remote control interface onto the shield. The circuitry for the optocoupler for each switch is very simple, we just need four of the following:

As the LED inside the optocoupler has a forward voltage of 1.2 volts at 10mA, the 390 ohm resistor is required as our Arduino digital out is 5 volts. Dout is connected to the particular digital out pin from the Arduino board. Pins 4 and 5 on the optocoupler are connected to each side of the button contact on our remote control.

The next consideration is the power supply. The remote control theoretically needs 12 volts, however the included battery only measured just over nine. However for the optimum range, the full 12 should be supplied. To save worrying about the battery, our example will provide 12V to the remote control. Furthermore, we also need to supply 5 volts at a higher current rating that can be supplied by our Arduino. In the previous GSM chapters, I have emphasised that the GSM shield can possibly draw up to two amps in current. So once again, please ensure your power supply can deliver the required amount of current. From experience in my location, I know that the GSM shield draws around 400~600 milliamps of current – which makes things smaller and less complex.

The project will be supplied 12 volts via a small TO-92 style 78L12 regulator, and 5 volts via a standard TO-220 style 7805 regulator. You could always use a 7812, the 78L12 was used as the current demand is lower and the casing is smaller. The power for the whole project will come from a 15V DC 1.5A power supply. So our project’s power supply schematic will be as follows:

Now to mount the optocouplers and the power circuitry on the blank protoshield. Like most things in life it helps to make a plan before moving forward. I like to use graph paper, each square representing a hole on the protoshield, to plan the component layout. For example:

It isn’t much, but it can really help. Don’t use mine – create your own, doing so is good practice. After checking the plan over, it is a simple task to get the shield together. Here is my prototype example:

shieldss

It isn’t neat, but it works. The header pins are used to make connecting the wires a little easier, and the pins on the right hand side are used to import the 15V and export 12V for the remote. While the soldering iron is hot, the wires need to be soldered to the remote control. Due to the unfortunate size of the PCB tracks, there wasn’t much space to work with:

txsolder1ss

But with time and patience, the wiring was attached:

txsolder2ss

Again, as this is a prototype the aesthetics of the modification are not that relevant. Be careful when handling the remote, as any force on the wiring can force the soldered wire up and break the PCB track. After soldering each pair of wires to the button pads, use the continuity function of a multimeter to check for shorts and adjust your work if necessary.

At this stage the AC remote control shield prototype is complete. It can be tested with a simple sketch to turn on and off the related digital outputs. For example, the following sketch will turn on and off each outlet in sequence:

Now to get connected with our GSM shield. It is a simple task to insert the remote shield over the GSM shield combination, and to connect the appropriate power supply and (for example) GSM aerial. The control sketch is a slight modification of example 27.2, and is shown below

The variable pressdelay stores the amount of time in milliseconds to ‘press’ a remote control button. To control our outlets, we send a text message using the following syntax:

Where a/b are remote channels one and two, and x is replaced with 0 for off and 1 for on.

So there you have it – controlling almost any AC powered device via text message from a cellular phone. Imagine trying to do that ten, or even five years ago. As always, now it is up to you and your imagination to find something to control or get up to other shenanigans.

LEDborder

Have fun and keep checking into tronixstuff.com. Why not follow things on twitterGoogle+, subscribe  for email updates or RSS using the links on the right-hand column, or join our Google Group – dedicated to the projects and related items on this website. Sign up – it’s free, helpful to each other –  and we can all learn something.

Posted in AC power, arduino, CEL-00675, CEL-09607, cellphone hacking, cellular, GSM, hardware hacking, lesson, SM5100, SMS, tutorial

Introduction to the Inductor

Hello everyone!

Today we are going to explore the use of the Inductor. This is a continuation from the series of articles on alternating current. An inductor is a component that can resist changes in AC current, and store energy in a magnetic field from a current that passes through it. A changing current (AC) causes a changing magnetic field which induces a voltage that opposes the current produced by the magnetic field. This is known as the inductance.  One could think of an inductor as an AC resistor. But first of all, what is an inductor comprised of?

In simple terms an inductor is a coil of wire, wrapped around a core. The core forms a support for the coil of wire – such as ceramic cores, or in some cases can affect the properties of the magnetic field depending on the chemical composition of the core. These may include cores formed from ferrite (usually zinc and manganese, or zinc and nickel) or powdered iron (which has a tiny air gap allowing the core to store a higher level of magnetic flux (the measure of magnetic field strength)allowing a higher level of DC current to flow through before becoming saturated.

So, the amount of inductance is influenced by several factors – the core material (as above), the size and shape of the core, as well as the number of turns of wire in the coil and its shape. The unit of inductance is the henry (H), however common values are usually in the millihenry (mH) or microhenry (uH) range.

Furthermore, there is an amount of DC resistance due to the properties of the coil wire, however this is usually negligible and kept to a minimum. For example, looking at a data sheet for a typical line of inductors – inductors.pdf – the DC resistance of a 10uH inductor is a maximum of 0.05 ohms. With inductors of higher values, the DC resistance will need to be taken account of. But more about that later.

This is the usual symbol for an inductor in a schematic:

However this may also be used:

And here is a variety of inductors in the flesh:

10microhenryss

radial ferrite core, generally for PCB use, handles around 1.5 amperes

radial leaded, very low resistance, handles around 2.5 amperes

ferrite core, convenient for through-hole PCB

phenolic core

toroidal – handles large currents ~10 amperes depending on model

surface-mount, can still handle around 500 mA

All of the pictured inductors have an inductance of 10 uH. Now let’s examine how inductors work with alternating current. Consider the following circuit:

1

 

Just like capacitors in AC circuits, an inductor has a calculable reactance. The formula for the reactance (X, in ohms) of an inductor is:


where f is the frequency of the AC and L is the value of the inductor in Henries (remember that 1uH is 10 to the power of -6). The formula to calculate the impedance of the above circuit is:

where Z is in ohms. And finally, the formula for AC Vout is

The formula for DC Vout is the usual voltage dividing formula. In this case, as we consider the inductor to not have any resistance, DC Vout = DC Vin.

So, let’s work through an example. Our DC Vin is 12 volts, with a 2V peak to peak AC signal, at a frequency of 20 kHz. The resistor R has a value of 1 kilo ohm, and the inductor L is 10 millihenries (0.01 H). A quick check of the data sheet shows that the 10 mH inductor has a resistance that cannot be ignored – 37.4 ohms. So this must be taken into account when calculating the DC Vout. Therefore we can consider the inductor to be a 37.4 ohm resistor when calculating the DC Vout, which gives us a result of 11.56 volts DC. Substituting the other values gives us a reduced AC signal voltage of 1.24 volts peak to peak.

Another interesting fact is that there is a relationship between AC Vout and the frequency of the AC signal. In the video below, I have used a 10k ohm resistor and a 10 uH inductor in the circuit described above. The frequency counter is measuring the frequency of AC Vin, and the multimeter is measuring the AC Vout:

This is an interesting relationship and demonstrates how an inductor can resist alternating current, depending on the frequency.

Thus ends our introduction to the inductor. We will continue with the inductor in the near future. I hope you understood and can apply what we have discussed today. As always, thank you for reading and I look forward to your comments and so on. Furthermore, don’t be shy in pointing out errors or places that could use improvement, you can either leave a comment below or email me – john at tronixstuff dot com.

Please subscribe using one of the methods at the top-right of this web page to receive updates on new posts. Or join our Google Group and post your questions there.

Posted in education, inductor, learning electronics, lesson, test equipment, tutorialComments (0)

Education – Introduction to Alternating Current – part two

Hello everyone

Today we are going to continue exploring alternating current, with regards to how resistors and capacitors deal with AC. This chapter is part two, chapter one is here. Once you have read this article, continue on with learning about inductors. To help with the explanations, remember this diagram:

sin2

That is, note that there are three possible voltage values, Vpp, Vp and Vrms. Moving on. Alternating current flows through various components just like direct current. Let’s examine some components and see.

First, the resistor. It operates in the same way with AC as it does DC, and the usual calculations apply with regards to Ohm’s law, dividing voltage and so on. However you must keep in mind the type of voltage value. For example, 10Vrms + 20Vpp does NOT equal 30 of anything. But we can work it out. 20Vpp is 10Vp,  which is 7.07Vrms… plus 10Vrms = 17.07Vrms. Therefore, 10Vrms + 20Vpp = 17.07Vrms.

Furthermore, when using Ohm’s law, or calculating power, the result of your equation must always reflect the type of voltage used in the calculations. For example:

scan1

Next, the capacitor. Capacitors oppose the flow of alternating current in an interesting way – in simple terms, the greater the frequency of the current, the less opposition to the current. However, we call this opposition reactance, which is measured in ohms. Here is the formula to calculate reactance:


the result Xc is measured in Ohms, f is frequency is Hertz, and C is capacitance in Farads. Here are two examples – note to convert the value of the capacitor back to Farads

 

scan3

scan4

Also consider if you have identical frequencies, a smaller capacitor will offer a higher resistance than a larger capacitor. Why is this so? A smaller capacitor will reach the peak voltages quicker as it charges in less time (as it has less capacitance); wheras a larger capacitor will take longer to charge and reach the peak voltage, therefore slowing down the current flow which in turn offers a higher reactance.

Resistors and capacitors can also work together as an AC voltage divider. Consider the following schematic:

As opposed to a DC voltage divider, R2 has been replaced with C1, the 0.1 uF capacitor. In order to calculate Vout, we will need the reactance of C1 – and subsitute that value for R2:

scan61

 

However, once the voltage has been divided, Vout has been transformed slightly – it is now out of phase. This means that Vout oscillates at the same frequency, but at different time intervals than Vin. The easiest way to visualise this is with an oscilloscope, which you can view below:

Please note that my CRO is not in the best condition. In the clip it was set to a time base of 2 milliseconds/division horizontal and 5 volts/division vertical.

Thus ends chapter two of our introduction to alternating current. I hope you understood and can apply what we have discussed today. As always, thank you for reading and I look forward to your comments and so on. Furthermore, don’t be shy in pointing out errors or places that could use improvement, you can either leave a comment below or email me – john at tronixstuff dot com.

Please subscribe using one of the methods at the top-right of this web page to receive updates on new posts. Or join our Google Group and post your questions there.

Posted in AC, alternating current, education, learning electronics, lesson, tutorialComments (1)

Education – Introduction to Alternating Current

Hello everyone!

Today we are going to introduce the basics of AC – alternating current. This is necessary in order to understand future articles, and also to explain in layperson’s terms what AC is all about. So let’s go!

AC – Alternating Current. We see those two letters all around us. But what is alternating current? How does current alternate? We know that DC (direct current) is the result of a chemical reaction of some sort – for example in a battery, or from a solar cell. We know that it can travel in either direction, and we have made use of it in our experimenting. DC voltage does not alter (unless we want it to).

Therein lies the basic difference – and why alternating current is what is is – it alternates! 🙂 This is due to the way AC current is created, usually by a generator of some sort. In simple terms a generator can be thought of as containing a rotating coil of wire between two magnets. When a coil passes a magnet, a current is induced by the magnetic field. So when the coil rotates, a current is induced, and the resulting voltage is relative to the coil’s positioning with the magnets.

For example, consider the diagram below (exploded view, it is normally more compact):

generator

This is a very basic generator. A rotating coil of wire is between two magnets. The spacing of the magnets in real life is much closer. So as the coil rotates, the magnetic fields induce a current through the coil, which is our alternating current. But as the coil rotates around and around, the level of voltage is relative to the distance between the coil and the magnet. The voltage increases from zero, then decreases, then increases… as the coil constantly rotates. If you were to graph the voltage level (y-axis) against time (x-axis), it would look something like below:

sin1

That graph is a sine wave… and is a representation of perfect AC current. If you were to graph DC voltage against time, it would be a straight horizontal line. For example, compare the two images below, 2 volts DC and AC, shown on an oscilloscope:

2v-dc-cro-small

2 volts DC

The following clip is 2 volts AC, as shown on the oscilloscope:

So as you can see, AC is not a negative and positive current like DC, it swings between negative and positive very quickly. So how do you take the voltage measurement? Consider the following:

sin2

The zero-axis is the point of reference with regards to voltage. That is, it is the point of zero volts. In the oscilloscope video above, the maximum and minimum was 2 volts. Therefore we would say it was 2 volts peak, or 2Vp. It could also be referred to as 4 volts peak to peak, or 4Vpp – as there is a four volt spread between the maximum and minimum values of the sine wave.

There is another measurement in the diagram above – Vrms, or volts root mean squared. The Vrms value is the amount of AC that can do the same amount of work as the equivalent DC voltage. Vrms = 0.707 x Vp; and Vp = 1.41 * Vrms. Voltages of power outlets are rated at Vrms instead of peak as this is relative to calculations. For example, in Australia we have 240 volts:

241vacs

Well, close enough. In fact, our electricity distributor says we can have a tolerance of +/- 10%… some rural households can have around 260 volts. Moving on…

The final parameter of AC is the frequency, or how many times per second the voltage changes from zero to each peak then back to zero. That is the time for one complete cycle. The number of times this happens per second is the frequency, and is measured in Hertz (Hz). The most common frequency you will hear about is your domestic supply frequency. Australia is 50 Hz:

50-hzss

… the US is 60 Hz, etc. In areas that have a frequency of 60 Hz, accurate mains-powered time pieces can be used, as the seconds hand or counter can be driven from the frequency of the AC current.

The higher the frequency, the shorter the period of time taken by one cycle. The frequency and time are inversely proportional, so frequency = 1/time; and time – 1/frequency. For example, if your domestic supply is 50 Hz, the time for each cycle is 1/50 = 0.02 seconds. This change can be demonstrated quite well on an oscilloscope, for example:

In the video above there is 2 volts AC, and the frequency starts from 100 Hz, then moves around the range of 10 to 200 Hz. As you can see, the amplitude of the sine wave does not change (the height, which indicates the voltage) but the time period does alter, indicating the frequency is changing. And here is the opposite:

This video is a demonstration of changing the voltage, whilst maintaining a fixed frequency. Thus ends the introduction to alternating current. In the next instalment about AC we will look at how AC works in electronic circuits, and how it is handled by various components.

I hope you understood and can apply what we have discussed today. As always, thank you for reading and I look forward to your comments and so on. Furthermore, don’t be shy in pointing out errors or places that could use improvement.

Please subscribe using one of the methods at the top-right of this web page to receive updates on new posts. Or join our Google Group and post your questions there.

Posted in AC, alternating current, education, learning electronics, lesson, safety, tutorialComments (0)


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