Tag Archive | "module"

Easily test and experiment with GSM modules using AT Command Tester


Working with GSM modules and by extension Arduino GSM shields can either be a lot of fun or bring on a migraine. This is usually due to the quality of module, conditions placed on the end user by the network, reception, power supply and more.

Furthermore we have learned after several years that even after following our detailed and tested tutorials, people are having trouble understanding why their GSM shield isn’t behaving. With this in mind we’re very happy to have learned about a free online tool that can be used to test almost every parameter of a GSM module with ease – AT Command Tester. This software is a Java application that runs in a web browser, and communicates with a GSM module via an available serial port.

Initial Setup

It’s simple, just visit http://m2msupport.net/m2msupport/module-tester/ with any web browser that can run Java. You may need to alter the Java security settings down to medium. Windows users can find this in Control Panel> All Control Panel Items  > Java – for example:

Java security settings

Once the security settings have been changed, just visit the URL, click ‘accept’ and ‘run’ in the next dialogue box that will appear, for example:

run Java app

And after a moment, the software will appear:

at command tester

Once you’re able to run the AT Command Tester software, the next step is to physically connect the hardware. If you’re just using a bare GSM module, a USB-serial adaptor can be used for easy connection to the PC. For Arduino GSM shield users, you can use the Arduino as a bridge between the shield and PC, however if your GSM shield uses pins other than D0/D1 for serial data transmission (such as our SIM900 shield) then you’ll need to upload a small sketch to bridge the software and hardware serial ports, for example:

Using the software

Once you have the hardware connected and the Arduino running the required sketch, run the software – then click “Find ports” to select the requried COM: port, set the correct data speed and click “Connect”. After a moment the software will interrogate the GSM module and report its findings in the yellow log area:

at command tester connected

 As you can see on the left of the image above, there is a plethora of options and functions you can run on the module. By selecting the manufacturer of your GSM module form the list, a more appropriate set of functions for your module is displayed.

When you click a function, the AT command sent to the module and its response is shown in the log window – and thus the magic of this software. You can simply throw any command at the module and await the response, much easier than looking up the commands and fighting with terminal software. You can also send AT commands in batches, experiment with GPRS data, FTP, and the GPS if your module has one.

To give you a quick overview of what is possible, we’ve made this video which captures us running a few commands on a SIM900-based Arduino shield. If possible, view it in 720p.


Kudos to the people from the M2Msupport website for bringing us this great (and free) tool. It works – so we’re happy to recommend it. And if you enjoyed this article, or want to introduce someone else to the interesting world of Arduino – check out my book (now in a third printing!) “Arduino Workshop”.

visit tronixlabs.com

Have fun and keep checking into tronixstuff.com. Why not follow things on twitterGoogle+, subscribe  for email updates or RSS using the links on the right-hand column, or join our forum – dedicated to the projects and related items on this website. Sign up – it’s free, helpful to each other –  and we can all learn something.

Posted in arduino, AT command, GSM, software review, tronixstuff

Kit Review – FriedCircuits LED Matrix Link


Time for another kit review, and in this instalment we’ve received some LED matrix modules and a matching Arduino-compatible controller board from friedcircuits.us. Behind the name is William Garrido – who some of you may know as “mobile will” from following his blog. Over time William has created a range of small and useful products, which are now available on the tindie online store.

The system comprises of two modules. The first is a small Arduino-compatible board with an ATmega328P microcontroller – the LED matrix master. It’s quite small and is designed to be the start of a chain of matching LED matrix link boards. Each of these holds an 8×8 LED matrix and is controlled by the AS1107 LED driver IC. This is a direct replacement IC for the popular MAX7219, works exactly the same and is a great find instead of using knock-off MAX7219s. You can chain up to 8 matrix modules from the one controller. We received a matrix master and two matrix link boards to examine, which arrived in solid packaging a fun Tindie sticker:



All the surface-mount soldering is done in advance, leaving you with some simple through-hole soldering for the LED matrix and the connectors between each module. The PCBs are clearly labelled with the silk screen and have mounting holes for permanent installations:

friedcircuits master module

friedcircuits matrix module rear

So after a few minutes of soldering it’s time to get the blinking on:

friedcircuits matrix modules rear

You may have noticed by now that the master board doesn’t have  a USB socket, so you’ll need a 5V FTDI cable or a USBasp programmer to upload your Arduino sketches or AVR .hex file to get things moving.

Controlling a matrix or more

As the system is basically an Arduino-compatible with one or more MAX7219-compatible modules you can find all sorts of example sketches to experiment with. If you haven’t used a MAX7219/AS1107 before there are a couple of starting points including the Arduino library and another random tutorial. Using an example sketch on the Arduino forum by member “danigom“, and after checking the data, clock and load pins it was ready to go. Here’s the sketch for your consideration:

In the following video you can see the sketch in action with two and one matrix modules:

Where to from here? 

The matrix modules can find a wide range of uses, from simple fun and scrolling text to various LED matrix games, status displays and more. They also work well with the XOBXOB IoT USB-connected example. The design files are available for perusal on the friedcircuits github page. And don’t forget the matrix master board in itself is a tiny Arduino-compatible – with the full eight ADCs and digital I/O pins available. Thus you can embed this in another project if so desired.


The LED matrix modules are simple to use and work well together. Plus the matrix master board makes for a neat little Arduino-compatible as well. For more information and to order, visit the friedcircuits.us website. Full-sized images are on flickr. And if you made it this far – check out my new book “Arduino Workshop” from No Starch Press.

In the meanwhile have fun and keep checking into tronixstuff.com. Why not follow things on twitterGoogle+, subscribe  for email updates or RSS using the links on the right-hand column? And join our friendly Google Group – dedicated to the projects and related items on this website. Sign up – it’s free, helpful to each other –  and we can all learn something.

[Note – kits reviewed were a promotional consideration from friedcircuits]

Posted in arduino, as1107, kit review, LED matrix, max7219, tronixstuff, tutorialComments (0)

Arduino and KTM-S1201 LCD modules

Learn how to use very inexpensive KTM-S1201 LCD modules in this edition of our Arduino tutorials. This is chapter forty-nine of a series originally titled “Getting Started/Moving Forward with Arduino!” by John Boxall – A tutorial on the Arduino universe. The first chapter is here, the complete series is detailed here.


After looking for some displays to use with another (!) clock, I came across some 12-digit numeric LCD displays. They aren’t anything flash, and don’t have a back light –  however they were one dollar each. How could you say no to that? So I ordered a dozen to try out. The purpose of this tutorial is to show you how they are used with an Arduino in the simplest manner possible.

Moving forward – the modules look like OEM modules for desktop office phones from the 1990s:

With a quick search on the Internet you will find a few sellers offering them for a dollar each. The modules (data sheet) use the NEC PD7225 controller IC (data sheet):

They aren’t difficult to use, so I’ll run through set up and operation with a few examples.

Hardware setup

First you’ll need to solder some sort of connection to the module – such as 2×5 header pins. This makes it easy to wire it up to a breadboard or a ribbon cable:

The rest of the circuitry is straight-forward. There are ten pins in two rows of five, and with the display horizontal and the pins on the right, they are numbered as such:

Now make the following connections:

  • LCD pin 1 to 5V
  • LCD pin 2 to GND
  • LCD pin 3 to Arduino D4
  • LCD pin 4 to Arduino D5
  • LCD pin 5 to Arduino D6
  • LCD pin 6 to Arduino D7
  • LCD pin 7 – not connected
  • LCD pin 8 – Arduino D8
  • LCD pin 9 to the centre pin of a 10k trimpot – whose other legs connect to 5V and GND. This is used to adjust the contrast of the LCD.

The Arduino digital pins that are used can be changed – they are defined in the header file (see further on). If you were curious as to how low-current these modules are:

That’s 0.689 mA- not bad at all. Great for battery-powered operations. Now that you’ve got the module wired up, let’s get going with some demonstration sketches.

Software setup

The sketches used in this tutorial are based on work by Jeff Albertson and Robert Mech, so kudos to them – however we’ve simplified them a little to make use easier. We’ll just cover the functions required to display data on the LCD. However feel free to review the sketches and files along with the controller chip datasheet as you’ll get an idea of how the controller is driven by the Arduino.

When using the LCD module you’ll need a header file in the same folder as your sketch. You can download the header file from here. Then every time you open a sketch that uses the header file, it should appear in a tab next to the main sketch, for example:


There’s also a group of functions and lines required in your sketch. We’ll run through those now – so download the first example sketch, add the header file and upload it. Your results should be the same as the video below:

So how did that work? Take a look at the sketch you uploaded.  You need all the functions between the two lines of “////////////////////////” and also the five lines in void setup(). Then you can display a string of text or numbers using

which was used in void loop(). You can use the digits 0~9, the alphabet (well, what you can do with 7-segments), the degrees symbol (use an asterix – “*”) and a dash (use  – “-“). So if your sketch can put together the data to display in a string, then that’s taken care of.

If you want to clear the screen, use:

Next – to individually place digits on the screen, use the function:

Where n is the number to be displayed (zero or a positive integer), p is the position on the LCD for the number’s  (the positions from left to right are 11 to 0…), d is the number of digits to the right of the decimal point (leave as zero if you don’t want a decimal point), and l is the number of digits being displayed for n. When you display digits using this function you can use more than one function to compose the number to be displayed – as this function doesn’t clear the screen.

To help get your head around it, the following example sketch (download) has a variety of examples in void loop(). You can watch this example in the following video:


So there you have it – an incredibly inexpensive and possibly useful LCD module. Thank you to Jeff Albertson and Robert Mech for their help and original code.


In the meanwhile have fun and keep checking into tronixstuff.com. Why not follow things on twitterGoogle+, subscribe  for email updates or RSS using the links on the right-hand column? And join our friendly Google Group – dedicated to the projects and related items on this website. Sign up – it’s free, helpful to each other –  and we can all learn something.

Posted in arduino, display, education, ktm-s101, ktms101, LCD, lesson, part review, pd7225, tutorialComments (10)

Kit Review – akafugu Simpleclock


Finally another kit review! Thanks to akafugu in Japan (the people who brought us the Akafuino-X) we have a new clock kit to assemble – the Simpleclock. But first, what is it?

A clock – yes. You can never have too many clocks. Also, a digital thermometer and an alarm clock. It is based on the Atmel ATmega328 and Arduino IDE, with open-source firmware. The real-time clock uses the DS1307 circuit with battery backup that we know and love. This means you can completely modify the clock or concoct a completely different use for your Simpleclock. Countdown timer? There’s an idea…

Furthemore, the display module is their individual I2C-interface TWI Display. Therefore you have a clock as well as some Arduino-based hardware to experiment with later on. However, let’s assemble it first.


Putting it all together was quite straight-forward. You can follow the detailed instructions at the akafugu site. All the parts required to make a functional clock as advertised are included with the kit:

Here are the brains of the operation – the pre-programmed microcontroller and the DS1307 real-time clock IC: 

You do receive an IC socket for the MCU, but not for the RTC – however this shouldn’t be an issue – just double-check your soldering and have some confidence. The PCBs are nicely laid out with solder-masking and a clear silk-screen:

The PCB on the left in the images above is for the display module – it runs an ATtiny microcontroller than can be worked with separately. Moving forward, you start with the lowest-profile components including the resistors and capacitors:

Take note of the vice – these are great, and light years ahead of the “helping hands” things you see around the traps. This was a Stanley model from element14. The resistors sit in nicely:

The next step is to put a blob of solder on the solder pad which will be beneath the backup battery holder – this forces contact between the negative side of the coin cell battery and the PCB:

Everything else went smoothly – I did have a small worry about the pin spacing for the USB power socket, however a clean tip and a steady hand solved that problem:

The rest of the clock board is much easier – just follow the instructions, take your time and relax. Soon enough you’ll be finished:

However I did have one “oops” moment – I left the PTC in too tall, so it needed to be bent over a little to give way for the display module when inserted:

The next task is to solder the four digit display to the display PCB – nothing new here:

Which leaves you with the standalone display module:

Using the Simpleclock

The firmware for clock use as described in the product page is already loaded in the MCU, so you can use it without needing and programming time or effort. It is powered via a mini-USB cable which you will need to acquire yourself. Frankly the design should have a DC socket and regulator – perhaps for the second revision 🙂 With second thought, it’s better running from USB. When I turn on the computer in the morning the Simpleclock beeps and ‘wakes up’. The menu system is simple and setting the time and alarm is deceptively so. Some thought has been put into the user interface so once assembled, you could always give the clock away as a gift without fear of being asked for help. However mine is staying on top of the monitor for the office PC:

And here it is in action on the bench:

If you get the urge to modify and update the code, it is easily done. As the Simpleclock kit is open source, all the data required is available from Akafugu’s github page. Please read the notes and other documentation before updating your clock. The easiest way to physically upload the new code will be with a 5V FTDI to USB adaptor or cable.


The Simpleclock was easy to assemble and works very well. It would make a fun kit for those learning to solder, as they have something that once completed is a reminder of their success and useful in daily life. Apart from using USB for power instead of a DC socket – it’s a great kit and I would recommend it to anyone interested in clocks, enjoys kit assembly, or as a gift to a young one to introduce them to electronics and microcontrollers.

Note – the Simpleclock kit was a promotional consideration from akafugu.jp, however the opinions stated are purely my own.

In the meanwhile have fun and keep checking into tronixstuff.com. Why not follow things on twitterGoogle+, subscribe  for email updates or RSS using the links on the right-hand column? And join our friendly Google Group – dedicated to the projects and related items on this website. Sign up – it’s free, helpful to each other –  and we can all learn something.

Posted in akafugu, arduino, clocks, ds1307, I2C, kit review, tutorialComments (2)

Tutorial: Arduino and monochrome LCDs

Please note that the tutorials are not currently compatible with Arduino IDE v1.0. Please continue to use v22 or v23 until further notice. 

This is chapter twenty-four of a series originally titled “Getting Started/Moving Forward with Arduino!” by John Boxall – A tutorial on the Arduino universe.

The first chapter is here, the complete series is detailed here.

Welcome back fellow arduidans!

The purpose of this article is to summarise a range of affordable monochrome liquid-crystal display units that are available to work with our Arduino; and to replace the section about LCDs in chapter two of this series. We will first examine some fixed-character and then graphical LCD units in this article. So let’s go!

Fixed-character LCD modules

When shopping around for LCD modules, these will usually be the the most common found in retail outlets. Their size is normally measured by the number of columns and rows of characters in the display. For example, the three LCDs below are 8×2, 16×2 and 20×4 characters in size:


Currently, most LCDs should have a backlight of some sort, however you may come across some heavily-discounted models on (for example) eBay that are not. Character, background and backlight colours can vary, for example:


Interfacing these screens with our Arduino boards is very easy, and there are several ways to do so. These interface types can include four- and eight-bit parallel, three-wire,  serial, I2C and SPI interfaces; and the LCD price is usually inversely proportional to the ease of interface (that is, parallel are usually the cheapest).

Four-bit parallel interface

This is the cheapest method of interface, and our first example for this article. Your LCD will need a certain type of controller IC called a Hitachi HD44780 or compatible such as the KS0066. From a hardware perspective, there are sixteen pins on the LCD. These are usually in one row:


… or two rows of eight:


The pin labels for our example are the following:

  1. GND
  2. 5V (careful! Some LCDs use 3.3 volts – adjust according to LCD data sheet from supplier)
  3. Contrast
  4. RS
  5. RW
  6. Enable
  7. DB0 (pins DB0~DB7 are the data lines)
  8. DB1
  9. DB2
  10. DB3
  11. DB4
  12. DB5
  13. DB6
  14. DB7
  15. backlight + (unused on non-backlit LCDs) – again, check your LCD data sheet as backlight voltages can vary.
  16. backlight GND (unused on non-backlit LCDs)

As always, check your LCD’s data sheet before wiring it up.

Some LCDs may also have the pinout details on their PCB if you are lucky, however it can be hard to decipher:

Now let’s connect our example 16×2 screen to our Arduino using the following diagram.

Our LCD runs from 5V and also has a 5V backlight – yours may differ, so check the datasheet:


(Circuit layout created using Fritzing)

Notice how we have used six digital output pins on the Arduino, plus ground and 5V. The 10k ohm potentiometer connected between LCD pins 2, 3 and 5 is used to adjust the display contrast. You can use any digital out pins on your Arduino, just remember to take note of which ones are connected to the LCD as you will need to alter a function in your sketch. If your backlight is 3.3V, you can use the 3.3V pin on the Arduino.

From a software perspective, we need to use the LiquidCrystal() library. This library should be pre-installed with the Arduino IDE. So in the start of your sketch, add the following line:

Next, you need to create a variable for our LCD module, and tell the sketch which pins are connected to which digital output pins. This is done with the following function:

The parameters in the brackets define which digital output pins connect to (in order) LCD pins: RS, enable, D4, D5, D6, and D7.

Finally, in your void setup(), add the line:

This tells the sketch the dimensions in characters (columns, rows) of our LCD module defined as the variable lcd. In the following example we will get started with out LCD by using the basic setup and functions. To save space the explanation of each function will be in the sketch itself. Please note that you do not have to use an Arduino Mega – it is used in this article as my usual Arduino boards are occupied elsewhere.

And here is a quick video of the example 24.1 sketch in action:

There are also a some special effects that we can take advantage of with out display units – in that we can actually define our own characters (up to eight per sketch). That is, control the individual dots (or pixels) that make up each character. With the our character displays, each character is made up of five columns of eight rows of pixels, as illustrated in the close-up below:


In order to create our characters, we need to define which pixels are on and which are off. This is easily done with the use of an array (array? see chapter four). For example, to create a solid block character as shown in the image above, our array would look like:

Notice how we have eight elements, each representing a row (from top to bottom), and each element has five bits – representing the pixel column for each row. The next step is to reference the custom character’s array to a reference number (0~7) using the following function within void setup():

Now when you want to display the custom character, use the following function:

where 0 is the memory position of the character to display.

To help make things easier, there is a small website that does the array element creation for you. Now let’s display a couple of custom characters to get a feel for how they work. In the following sketch there are three defined characters:

And here is a quick video of the example 24.2 sketch in action:

So there you have it – a summary of the standard parallel method of connecting an LCD to your Arduino. Now let’s look at the next type:

Three-wire LCD interface

If you cannot spare many digital output pins on your Arduino, only need basic text display and don’t want to pay for a serial or I2C LCD, this could be an option for you. A 4094 shift register IC allows use of the example HD44780 LCD with only three digital output pins from your Arduino. The hardware is connected as such:


And in real life:


From a software perspective, we need to use the LCD3Wire library, which you can download from here. To install the library, copy the folder within the .zip file to your system’s \Arduino-2x\hardware\libraries folder and restart the Arduino IDE. Then, in the start of your sketch, add the following line:

Next, you need to create a variable for our LCD module, and tell the sketch which of the 4094’s pins are connected to which digital output pins as well as define how many physical lines are in the LCD module. This is done with the following function:

Finally, in your void setup(), add the line:

The number of available LCD functions in the LCD3wire library are few – that is the current trade-off with using this method of LCD connection … you lose LCD functions but gain Arduino output pins. In the following example, we will demonstrate all of the available functions within the LCD3Wire library:

And as always, let’s see it in action. The LCD update speed is somewhat slower than using the parallel interface, this is due to the extra handling of the data by the 4094 IC:

Now for some real fun with:

Graphic LCD modules

(Un)fortunately there are many graphic LCD modules on the market. To keep things relatively simple, we will examine two – one with a parallel data interface and one with a serial data interface.

Parallel interface

Our example in this case is a 128 by 64 pixel unit with a KS0108B parallel interface:


For the more technically-minded here is the data sheet. From a hardware perspective there are twenty interface pins, and we’re going to use all of them. For breadboard use, solder in a row of header pins to save your sanity!

This particular unit runs from 5V and also has a 5V backlight. Yours may vary, so check and reduce backlight voltage if different.

You will again need a 10k ohm potentiometer to adjust the display contrast. Looking at the image above, the pin numbering runs from left to right. For our examples, please connect the LCD pins to the following Arduino Uno/Duemilanove sockets:

  1. 5V
  2. GND
  3. centre pin of 10k ohm potentiometer
  4. D8
  5. D9
  6. D10
  7. D11
  8. D4
  9. D5
  10. D6
  11. D7
  12. A0
  13. A1
  14. RST
  15. A2
  16. A3
  17. A4
  18. outer leg of potentiometer; connect other leg to GND
  19. 5V
  20. GND

A quick measurement of current shows my TwentyTen board and LCD uses 20mA with the backlight off and 160mA with it on. The display is certainly readable with the backlight off, but it looks a lot better with it on.

From a software perspective we have another library to install. By now you should be able to install a library, so download this KS0108 library and install it as usual. Once again, there are several functions that need to be called in order to activate our LCD. The first of these being:

which is placed within void setup(); The parameter sets the default pixel status. That is, with NON_INVERTED, the default display is as you would expect, pixels off unless activated; whereas INVERTED causes all pixels to be on by default, and turned off when activated. Unlike the character LCDs we don’t have to create an instance of the LCD in software, nor tell the sketch which pins to use – this is already done automatically. Also please remember that whenever coordinates are involved with the display, the X-axis is 0~127 and the Y-axis is 0~63.

There are many functions available to use with the KS0108 library, so let’s try a few of them out in this first example. Once again, we will leave the explanation in the sketch, or refer to the library’s page in the Arduino website. My creative levels are not that high, so the goal is to show you how to use the functions, then you can be creative on your own time. This example demonstrate a simpler variety of graphic display functions:

Now let’s see all of that in action:

You can also send normal characters to your KS0108 LCD. Doing so allows you to display much more information in a smaller physical size than using a character  LCD. Furthermore you can mix graphical functions with character text functions – with some careful display planning you can create quite professional installations. With a standard 5×7 pixel font, you can have eight rows of twenty-one characters each. Doing so is quite easy, we need to use another two #include statements which are detailed in the following example. You don’t need to install any more library files to use this example. Once again, function descriptions are in the sketch:

Again,  let’s see all of that in action:

If you’re looking for a very simple way of using character LCD modules, check this out.


Have fun and keep checking into tronixstuff.com. Why not follow things on twitterGoogle+, subscribe  for email updates or RSS using the links on the right-hand column, or join our Google Group – dedicated to the projects and related items on this website. Sign up – it’s free, helpful to each other –  and we can all learn something.

Posted in arduino, education, LCD, LCD-00710, learning electronics, lesson, microcontrollers, tutorialComments (52)

Review – Starman Electric Databridge Wireless I/O Modules

In this review we are going to have a look at some new wireless data modules that have just arrived on the market. They are the Databridge Wireless I/O modules from Starman Electric. Although there are many types of wireless modules out there, such as the discount 315 MHz units that are somewhat unreliable (well for me); and the great XBee series (as we used in Moving Forward with Arduino – Chapter Fourteen) – these Starman modules take it to the next level. How?

The concept of a databridge is a delightfully simple one. The two modules take the place of a wire. Digital, analogue, UART, even PC serial. No firmware settings to adjust, just plug them in and they work!

First of all, there are two physical types of unit, either DIP mount or SMD. The units below are the DIP version, 1mW output power:


The graph paper is 5mm square, and the module measures 53.85mm by 25.91mm. The DIP packaging (above) is meant for experimenters and prototypes, you can order SMD versions for production runs. There are also two power-output versions, 1mW with a theoretical range of 1km, and a 100 mW with a range of 4km. The higher power modules require the use of an external antenna. They require 3.3 volts DC, with a peak current draw of 37mA for the 1mW, and 120mA for the 100mW. For demonstration purposes I am using a Texas Instruments LP2950 to provide 3.3 volts DC at up to 100 mA.

Although the specification sheet is quite long (and you can download it from here) there are a few features that really stand out, including:

  • Automatic connection – a pair of modules will ‘lock’ onto each other without any extra work by the user;
  • A very high sampling rate of 200 samples per second with a latency of five millisconds;
  • Spread-spectrum radio operation – the modules will skip frequencies themselves for reliable connections;
  • You can have sixteen unique pairs working in the same area without cross-interference;
  • You can have two analogue channels and multiple digital channels simultaneously.

But enough talking, time to put them to the test. I will recreate some examples found in the Getting Started manual available for download here.

As I only have one pair of modules, and somehow I think my neighbours won’t be using any at this point in time, there is no need to set the pair’s unique network ID. However you do need to specify the master and slave in the module relationship (no switches…), which is done with pin 4 – to Vcc for master, and pin 4 to GND for slave. Now on with the show!

The first example of interest is number two in the guide – the wireless digital and analogue I/O bridge. To me this seems like an interesting wireless “repeater” to some Arduino analogue and digital outputs. Here is my test schematic used for the demonstrations in this review:


and my usual messy breadboards:

Well this is a temporary test! The slave module board is running from a 9V PP3 battery so I can take it for a walk.

Anyhow, the setup is – four digital out lines from an Arduino, which are either high or low (+5v or GND). These are connected to pins ‘digital signal’ 1~4 on the master Databridge. Furthermore, Arduino analogue pin 1 went to the Databridge ‘analog signal’ pin 1. At the slave side of things, there are four LEDs with current limiting resistors connected to pins ‘digital signal’ 1~4; and two wires each from ‘analog signal’ 1 would be connected to a voltmeter. The digital output pins on slave modules default to ‘high’ unless driven otherwise.

Finally, there is also an LED and current limiting resistor coming from pin 32 of each unit – the ‘link’ pin. The link pin is a lifesaver. Here is a great feature – when the pair of units are within range of each other and matched as a pair, link goes high (3.3V). Out of range? It goes low (0V). Therefore you can test the range on these modules just by powering them up on a breadboard each, with the LEDs on pin 32, and go for a walk with a unit. When the LED is off – you’re out of range. And when you come back into range, the modules reconnect automatically.

Back to the test. First I just created a loop which turned the digital pins on and off, and the matching LEDs on the slave unit blinked on and off as expected. No extra code, no trying to create wacky functions to multiplex/demultiplex signals – this just works. The modules are like an invisible bunch of wires between two points. Never has anything wireless worked so easily for me.

Here is a quick video clip, first notice the lonely LEDs on each breadboard – the are the link LEDs. When I power cycle the master or slave, notice how quickly they reconnect. Please note that the slave unit retains the state of the digital outputs if connection is lost. So if a pin is high while connected – if the module loses radio contact, the pin will stay high.

The theoretical maximum working range is quoted as 1km for these 1mW modules. My indoor test allowed a distance of 11 metres, with three concrete walls of a thickness of ~110mm in between. Unfortunately living in my area I could not find a flat, open area large enough to test the maximum open-air range – however considering the indoor ‘concrete wall’ test and my experience with other wireless equipment of this power output, it would be accurate in an outdoor, line-of-sight application. As always, conduct your own real-life tests before making any project commitments  and so on.

And as always, I was curious about the current draw of the units while in use. The master module with the link LED on measured 53 milliamps, with the slave at the boundary of the radio range:


The current use only dropped around 2 or 3 milliamps when the slave was next to the master. The slave module used 59 milliamps with the link LED on:


Therefore taking the LED current draw into consideration, the power usage of these modules is quite low considering the level of communication between them and the high sampling rate.

The next test was to see how the analogue data lines performed. According to example four in the Getting Started guide, the modules will reproduce an input of between 0 and 2.4 volts DC. So I have placed an 11k ohm resistor in series with a 10k ohm potentiometer with analog input 1, and measured the resulting output from the slave. Notice how I still have the digital data lines in use while using the analogue line.  Here is a short clip of this in action:

Amazing – a multitasking wireless module. Note that you could always use an op-amp to boost the output voltage back to the 0~5V DC range, an example of this is on page nine of the Getting Started guide.

Those above were but two from the many possibilities available when using these units:

  • wireless serial data links
  • remote on/off control of six items
  • robotics remote control
  • microcontroller I/O wireless extension…

Frankly – if you need to wirelessly connect more than one data line simultaneously, you have an excellent solution with the Databridge modules.

Update! – Radio licensing information:

These modules operate in the 2.4 GHz ISM (industrial, scientific and medical) band. For those in the USA, the Databridge is an FCC-approved “class B” device, and is only for use by OEM integrators (see page 16 of the datasheet.pdf). Starman Electric also state that the Databridge is certified for Canada and the EU (ETSI).

For those here in Australia, these units are operated under the conditions of the Radiocommunications (Low Interference Potential Devices) Class Licence 2000, and I feel are classed as “spread spectrum unit” under the preceding license.

Please conduct your own research with regards to radio transmitter licensing in your area. Furthermore, please read the tronixstuff “boring stuff” here.

But enough about that, where you can get them?

Australian customers can purchase these modules from our local distributor – Interworld Electronics; North Americans and the rest of the world directly via Starman Electric.

Remember, if you have any questions about these modules please contact Starman Electric via their website.

[Note – these wireless modules were loan units received from Starman Electric for review purposes]

Posted in databridge, part review, starman, wirelessComments (7)

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