Tag Archive | "soviet"

Kit review – ogi lumen Nixie Tube system

Hello readers

Time to finish off the month with a fascinating kit review  – the ogi lumen nixie tube system. The younger readers amongst us may be thinking “what is a nixie tube?” Here is an example of four in a row:

p1080918

If you cast your mind back to before the time of LCDs, and before LEDs… to the mid-1950s. Nixie tubes were used to display data in various forms on electrical devices, from test equipment, scales, elevator indicators, possible doomsday machines, clocks – anything that required visual output would be a candidate. Although nixie tubes are now totally out of date, as with many things there is a growing trend to use them again, for cool retro-style, nostalgia and those people who enjoy living in the past.

How nixie tubes work is quite simple, an element is within a vacuum tube full of gas, such as neon. When a high-voltage (~190 volts DC) current flows through the element, it glows. For more information, here is a great explanation. You will note that they are similar to in look but different in design to the vacuum-fluorescent displays, as used in the ice tube clock reviewed a few months previously. The tubes used in this kit are the Soviet model IN-12A:

p1080865

The IN-12A tube can display the digits zero to nine, with a nice orange glow.  For the uninitiated, sourcing and making nixie tubes can be quite difficult. Apart from procuring the tubes themselves, you need a suitable power supply and logic ICs that can handle the higher voltage to control the tubes. Thankfully Ogi Lumen have put together a system of kits to make using these nixie tubes simple and interesting. There are three components to the system, the first being the power supply:

p1080879

Note that the power supply is preassembled. This supply can generate the necessary 150 to 220 volts DC to energise our nixie tubes. Yes – up to 220 volts! For example:

p1080922

However the current required is quite small – one power supply can handle up to twenty-four IN12A nixie tubes. My example in the photograph above is drawing 110~120 milliamps from a 12V DC supply. For those of you assembling these kits, please be careful. It can be easy to physically move the kit about whilst in operation, and touching the live HV pads will hurt a lot. After bumping the HV line on the PCB, my whole left arm went into a spasm and hurt for the time it took to see my doctor. So be careful.

The second item required is the driver kit. This is a board that takes care of the shift-registers and power for two of the nixie tubes. Driver kits can be slotted together to form a row of nixie tubes. The third and final item is the nixie duo kit. This contains two IN-12A tubes, matching sockets and a PCB to muont them. This PCB then slots into the driver kit PCB. You can buy the driver and duo kit as a set for a discount.

From a hardware perspective, assembling the kits is relatively simple. There isn’t any tricky soldering or SMD to worry about, however you will need a lot of solder. The contents of the duo and driver kits are as follows:

p1080869

Before you start soldering, please download and take note of the instructional .pdf files available for the duo and driver board kits. Assembling the driver kit (on the right) is very straight forward. However – please read the instructions! An interesting part of note is the K155ИД1IC:

p1080872

This is the Russian equivalent of the 74141. This is a BCD-decimal decoder IC that can handle the high voltages required for nixie tubes. When soldering the resistors, take care with R2 – it will need to be positioned horizontally so as to not rub against the duo board:

p1080934

When it is time to assemble the duo board, you will need time and patience. At a first glance, one would imagine that the sockets drop into the PCB, and the nixie tubes will happily be seated into the sockets. This is not so, don’t solder in the sockets first! The pins on the bottom of the socket also form part of the socket for the tube legs – which can alter the positioning of the socket legs. Make sure you have the socket with pin 1 at the top of the PCB. After some trial and error, the best way to insert the tubes is to first partially place the sockets into the PCB:

p1080880

… then fully insert the tubes into their sockets. Make sure the tube is the right way up – check that the digit 3 in the tube is the right way up. Then push the whole lot into the PCB. At this point you should check to make sure the sockets are in line with each other:

p1080892

(Notice how thick the PCB is…) At which point you can solder them in, followed by the row of connector pins:

p1080896

By this stage you will need some fresh air from all that soldering. The PCB holes for the socket pins really take a lot. Now you can connect the power supply to the driver board and give the tubes a test-toast:

p1080941

All the tubes should have their elements glowing. This is a good start. The next step is to connect the appropriate microcontroller and start displaying. As noted in the instructions, the 74141 BCD-decimal ICs are controlled by standard 74HC595 shift-register ICs, so your microcontroller needs to send out a data, clock and latch line. My following examples have been created using the Ardiuno system and a compatible board.

The first example is a method of displaying integers. It uses the Nixie library which you can download here.

That was just an arbitrary demonstration to get some numbers displayed. Here is a short video clip of it in action:

Now for another, more useful example. By using a DS1307 real-time clock IC with the Arduino, we can make a nice clock that displays the time and date. For more information on using the DS1307 with Arduino, please visit this tutorial. You can download the example nixie clock .pde file from here. And finally, here is the clock in action:

The problem with these tubes is that you will never have enough. Already I have thought of a few things to make that require a lot more tubes, so in the next month or so stay tuned to tronixstuff.com as there will be more projects with these kits.

In conclusion, this was a great kit and anyone looking to use some numerical nixie tubes will do very well with the Ogi Lumen products. Furthermore the designs are released under Creative Commons by-sa-nc, and the files are available to download from the product pages. And finally, it is a lot of fun – people will generally ask you about the tubes as they may have never seen them before.

Remember, if you have any questions about these modules please contact Ogi Lumen via their website. Higher resolution images available on flickr.

Have fun and keep checking into tronixstuff.com. Why not follow things on twitterGoogle+, subscribe  for email updates or RSS using the links on the right-hand column, or join our Google Group – dedicated to the projects and related items on this website. Sign up – it’s free, helpful to each other –  and we can all learn something.

[Note – the kit assembled in this article was received from Ogi Lumen for review purposes]

Posted in arduino, kit review, learning electronics, nixie, ogilumenComments (11)

Various 555 Timer circuits

Hello readers

The purpose of this article is to follow on from our explanation of the 555 timer IC by demonstrating some simple yet interesting, noisy and plain annoying uses of the 555. They are by no means that complex, and intended to help move theory into practice.

Button de-bouncer

De-bouncer? How does one bounce a button in the first place? Many years ago I bounced a button on the arcade Sonic the Hedgehog – hit it so hard it popped out and bounced over the table… But seriously, when working with digital logic circuits, you may need to use  a momentary button to accept user input. For example, to pulse a trigger or so on. However with some buttons, they are not all that they seem to be. You press them once, but they can register multiple contacts – i.e. register two or more ‘presses’ for what seems like only one press. This could possibly cause trouble, so we can use a 555 timer monostable circuit to solver the problem. In our de-bounce example, when the button is pressed, the output is kept at high for around half a second. Here is the schematic:

555debouncesch

What we have is a basic monostable timer circuit. For my example the output delay (t) is to be half a second. The formula for t is: t=1.1xR1xC1. The closest resistor I had at hand was 2k ohms, so to find the required value for C1, the formula is rearranged into: C1=t/(1.1xR1). Substituting the values for t and R1 gives a value of C1 as 227.274 uF. So for C1 we have used a 220 uF capacitor.

Now for a visual demonstration of the de-bouncer at work. In the following video clip, the oscilloscope is displaying the button level on the lower channel, and the output level on the upper channel. The button level when open is high, as the 555 requires a low pulse to activate. The output level is normally low. You can see when the button is pressed that the button level momentarily drops to low, and then the output level goes high for around half a second:

Make some noise

As we know the 555 can oscillate at frequencies from less than 1Hz to around 500 kHz. The human ear can theoretically hear sounds between (approximately) 20 and 20 kHz. So if we create an astable timing circuit with an output frequency that falls within the range of the human ear, and connect that output to a small speaker – a range of tones can be emitted.

The circuit required is a standard 555 astable, with the output signal heading through a small 8 ohm 0.25 watt speaker and a 4.7 uF electrolytic capacitor to ground. The capacitor stops any DC current flowing to ground, without this we will overload the current-handling ability of the 555. (I couldn’t help myself by trying it without the capacitor – pulled 550 mA from the 555 before it stopped working…). To choose the values of R1 and C1 to emit out required frequency, the following formula is used: f (frequency) = 1.4 / {(R1 + [2 x R2]) x C1}. To cover the range required, a 100k ohm trimpot was used for R1. Here is the resulting schematic:

noisemakersch

The input voltage can fall within the specification of the 555, however for optimum results a supply of between 5 and 9 volts DC should be used. In the following demonstration, we used a 9V supply. The purpose of the video is to learn the relationship between the tones and their frequencies. You can see the frequency on my old counter and hopefully hear the result:

Our next example is to create a  siren effect, using two 555 circuits – one for a low frequency and one for a high frequency. To determine the value for R1 for the low and high frequency, I used the previous circuit and chose two tones that were quite different, and measured the resistance of the trimpot (R1) at those frequencies. My R1 value for the ‘low’ tone is 82k ohm and 36k ohm for the ‘high’ frequency.

The switching between low and high frequency will be handled by a 4047 multivibrator – the Q and Q outputs will control NPN transistors. The transistors are used as switches to allow current to flow from the supply to the 555 high or low tone circuit. We use this method as the 4047 is not able to source enough current to drive the 555 circuits. Here is the schematic:

555siren

Don’t forget to connect pin 14 of the 4047 to supply voltage. This circuit has been tested with a supply voltage between 5 and 12 volts. As the supply voltage increases, so does the amplitude of the square wave emanating from the 555 output pins, which in turn in creases the volume of the siren. At 5 volts, the entire circuit drew only 20 milliamps. Speaking of which, you can listen to a recording of the output here. If you wish to alter the time for each tone, adjust the value of what is the 47k ohm resistor on pins 2 and 3 of the 4047.

In the meanwhile have fun and keep checking into tronixstuff.com. Why not follow things on twitterGoogle+, subscribe  for email updates or RSS using the links on the right-hand column? And join our friendly Google Group – dedicated to the projects and related items on this website. Sign up – it’s free, helpful to each other –  and we can all learn something.

Posted in 4047, 555, arduino, COM-09273, education, learning electronics, lesson, tutorialComments (0)

Kit Review – adafruit industries Ice Tube clock v1.1

Hello readers

Today we examine a kit that perhaps transcends from general electronic fun and games into the world of modern art – the adafruitIce Tube” clock.

What is an Ice Tube clock? Before LCDs (liquid-crystal displays) were prevalent another form of display technology was popular – the vacuum-fluorescent display (or VFD). This clock uses a VFD originally manufactured in the former Soviet Union (link for the kids) or Russia (I think mine is date-stamped January 1993). This particular VFD contains a series of seven-segment digits and a dot, which allow the display of time in a bright and retro fashion.

Since this kit was released I had always desired one, however my general parsimonious traits and the wavering exchange rate against the US dollar kept my spending in check. But lately my wallet was hit by a perfect storm: the Australian dollar hit parity with the greenback, adafruit had a discount code and I felt like spending some money – so before the strange feelings passed I ordered a kit post-haste.

Sixteen slow, hot days later the box arrived. I must admit to enjoying a good parcel-opening:

packagingss

As always, the packaging was excellent and everything arrived as it should have. But what was everything?

boxcontentsss

Included is the anti-static bag containing the PCB and general components, a bag with the laser-cut acrylic pieces to assemble the housing, another bag with the housing fasteners and the back-up coin cell for the clock, a mains adaptor, and finally another solid cardboard box containing the classic display unit – albeit with the following sensible warning:

warningss

And finally the Russian IV-18 display tube:

tuberulerss

The tube is a fascinating piece of work, certainly a piece of perfect retro-technology and a welcome addition to my household. Assembling the clock will not be a fast process, and in doing so I recommend reviewing the detailed instructions several times over at the adafruit website. Furthermore, it is a good idea to identify, measure and line up the components ready for use, to save time and confusion along the way. Your experience may vary, however this kit took around three hours for me to construct.

Normally with most kits you can just solder the components in any order, however it is recommended you follow the instructions, as they are well written and allow for testing along the way. For example, after installing the power regulator, you can check the output:

firsttestss

At this stage, you can test your progress with the piezo beeping at power-on:

pcb2ss

These mid-construction tests are a good idea as you can hopefully locate any problems before things get out of hand. Another item to be careful with is the PLCC socket for the Maxim MAX6921 VFD driver IC (second from the left):

pcb3ss

However with time and patience there is no reason why you would have any problems. Once the main PCB is completed, the next item is the end PCB which connects to the VFD:

endpcbss

At this point it is a good time to have a break and a bit of a stretch, as you need all your patience for soldering in the VFD. Before attempting to do so, try and carefully straighten all the wires from the VFD so they are parallel with each other. Then using the adafruit instructions, make sure you have the tube wires lined up with the correct hole on the PCB:

endpcb2ss

After I had the leads through the correct holes on the PCB, trimming the leads made things easier:

endpcb3ss

It is also a good idea to check the gap between the VFD and the PCB is correct, by checking the fit within the housing:

testfitss

And after much patience, wire pulling with pliers, and light soldering –  the VFD was married to the PCB:

endpcb4ss

So now the difficult soldering work has been completed and now it was time for another test – the big one… does it all work?

alivess

Yes, yes it does. *phew* The low brightness is normal, as that is the default level set by the software. Please note: if you run your VFD without an enclosure that you must be careful of the high voltages on the right-hand side of the PCB and also the VFD PCB. If you test your VFD in this manner, don’t forget to allow ten minutes for the voltage to return to a safe level after removing the power supply. If you have been following the instructions (I hope so!) there is some more soldering to do, after which you can put away your soldering iron.

Now to remove the liner from the acrylic housing pieces and put it all together. Be very careful not to over-tighten the bolts otherwise you will shatter the housing pieces and be cranky. If all is well, you’re finished clock will appear as such:

tothisss

The clock in use:

runningss1

And finally, our ubiquitous video demonstration:

VFDs can lose their brightness over the years, and can be difficult to replace – so if you want many, many years of retro-time it would be smart to buy an extra tube from adafruit with your kit, or a modified DeLorean.

Overall, this was an interesting and satisfying kit to assemble. Not for the beginner, but if you have built a few easier kits such as  the “TV-B-Gone” with success, the Ice Tube clock will be within your reach. Furthermore, due to the clear housing, this kit is a good demonstration of your soldering and assembly skills. High resolution images are available on flickr.

You can purchase the kit directly from adafruit industries. As always, thank you for reading and I look forward to your comments and so on. Furthermore, don’t be shy in pointing out errors or places that could use improvement. Please subscribe using one of the methods at the top-right of this web page to receive updates on new posts. Or join our Google Group.

[Note – The kit was purchased by myself personally and reviewed without notifying the manufacturer or retailer]

Posted in adafruit, clocks, ice tube clock, IV-18, kit review, VFDComments (3)


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