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Arduino tutorial 15a – RFID with Innovations ID-20

Learn how to use RFID readers with your Arduino. In this instalment we use the Innovations ID-20 RFID reader. The ID-12 and ID-2 are also compatible. If you have the RDM630 or RDM6300 RFID reader, we have a different tutorial.

This is part of a series originally titled “Getting Started with Arduino!” by John Boxall – A tutorial on the Arduino universe. The first chapter is here, the complete series is detailed here.

Updated 26/02/2013

RFID – radio frequency identification. Some of us have already used these things, and they have become part of everyday life. For example, with electronic vehicle tolling, door access control, public transport fare systems and so on. It sounds complex – but isn’t. In this tutorial we’ll run through the basics of using the ID-20 module then demonstrate a project you can build and expand upon yourself.

Introduction

To explain RFID for the layperson, we can use a key and lock analogy. Instead of the key having a unique pattern, RFID keys hold a series of unique numbers which are read by the lock. It is up to our software (sketch) to determine what happens when the number is read by the lock.  The key is the tag, card or other small device we carry around or have in our vehicles. We will be using a passive key, which is an integrated circuit and a small aerial. This uses power from a magnetic field associated with the lock. Here are some key or tag examples:

In this tutorial we’ll be using 125 kHz tags – for example. To continue with the analogy our lock is a small circuit board and a loop aerial. This has the capability to read the data on the IC of our key, and some locks can even write data to keys. And out reader is the Innovations ID-20 RFID reader:

Unlike the RDM630 reader in the other RFID tutorial – the ID-20 is a complete unit with an internal aerial and has much larger reader range of around 160 mm. It’s a 5V device and draws around 65 mA of current. If you have an ID-12 it’s the same except the reader range is around 120mm; and the ID-2 doesn’t have an internal aerial. Connecting your ID-20 reader to the Arduino board may present a small challenge and require a bit of forward planning. The pins on the back of the reader are spaced closer together than expected:

… so a breakout board makes life easier:

… and for demonstration and prototyping purposes, we’ve soldered on the breakout board with some header pins:

 The first thing we’ll do is connect the ID-20 and demonstrate reading RFID tags. First, wire up the hardware as shown below:

If you’re using the breakout board shown earlier, pin 7 matches “+/-” in the diagram above. Next, enter and upload the following sketch (download):

Note that we’re using a software serial port for our examples. In doing so it leaves the Arduino’s serial lines for uploading sketches and the serial monitor. Now open the serial monitor window, check the speed is set to 9600 bps and wave some tags over the reader – the output will be displayed as below (but with different tag numbers!):

Each tag’s number starts with a byte we don’t need, then twelve that we do, then three we don’t. The last three aren’t printable in the serial monitor. However you do want the twelve characters that appear in the serial monitor.  While running this sketch, experiment with the tags and the reader… get an idea for how far away you can read the tags. Did you notice the tag is only read once – even if you leave it near the reader? The ID-20 has more “intelligence” than the RDM630 we used previously. Furthermore when a tag is read, the ID-20 sends a short PWM signal from pin 10 which is  just under 5V and lasts for around 230 ms, for example:

id20pulse

 This signal can drive a piezo buzzer or an LED (with suitable resistor). Adding a buzzer or LED would give a good notification to the user that a card has been read. While you’re reading tags for fun, make a note of the tag numbers for your tags – you’ll need them for the next examples.

RFID Access System

Now that we can read the cards, let’s create a simple control system. It will read a tag, and if it’s in the list of allowed tags the system will do something (light a green LED for a moment). Plus we have another LED which stays on unless an allowed tag is read.  Wire up the hardware as shown below (LED1 is red, LED2 is green – click image to enlarge):

Now enter and upload the following sketch:

In the function readCard() the sketch reads the tag data from the ID-20, and stores it in an array testtag[]. The index is -1 so the first unwanted tag number isn’t stored in the array. Once thirteen numbers have come through (the one we don’t want plus the twelve we do want) the numbers are smooshed together into a string variable testcard with the function String. Now the testcard string (the tag just read) can be compared against the three pre-stored tags (Sinclair, Smythe and Stephen).

Then it’s simple if… then… else to to see if we have a match, and if so – call the function approved() or disApproved as the case may be. In those two functions you store the actions you want to occur when the correct card is read (for example, control a door strike or let a cookie jar open) or when the system is waiting for another card/a match can’t be found. If you’re curious to see it work, check the following video where we take it for a test run and also show the distances that you have to work with:

Hopefully this short tutorial was of interest. We haven’t explored every minute detail of the reader – but you now have the framework to move forward with your own projects.

LEDborder

Have fun and keep checking into tronixstuff.com. Why not follow things on twitterGoogle+, subscribe  for email updates or RSS using the links on the right-hand column, or join our Google Group – dedicated to the projects and related items on this website. Sign up – it’s free, helpful to each other –  and we can all learn something.

Posted in arduino, id12, id20, innovations, lesson, PRT-00553, rfid, RFR103B2B, SEN-08419, SEN-08423, SEN-08628, tutorial, wirelessComments (14)

Moving Forward with Arduino – Chapter 15 – RFID Introduction

Learn how to use RFID readers with your Arduino. In this instalment we use an RDM630 or RDM6300 RFID reader. If you have an Innovations ID-12 or ID-20 RFID reader, we have a different tutorial.

This is part of a series originally titled “Getting Started with Arduino!” by John Boxall – A tutorial on the Arduino universe. The first chapter is here, the complete series is detailed here.

Updated 21/02/2013

RFID – radio frequency identification. Some of us have already used these things, and they have become part of everyday life. For example, with electronic vehicle tolling, door access control, public transport fare systems and so on. It sounds complex – but isn’t.

To explain RFID for the layperson, we can use a key and lock analogy. Instead of the key having a unique pattern, RFID keys hold a series of unique numbers which are read by the lock. It is up to our software (sketch) to determine what happens when the number is read by the lock.  The key is the tag, card or other small device we carry around or have in our vehicles. We will be using a passive key, which is an integrated circuit and a small aerial. This uses power from a magnetic field associated with the lock. Here are some key or tag examples:

In this tutorial we’ll be using 125 kHz tags – for example. To continue with the analogy our lock is a small circuit board and a loop aerial. This has the capability to read the data on the IC of our key, and some locks can even write data to keys. Here is our reader (lock) example:

readerss

As you can see from the 5mm graph paper, the circuitry is quite small, and the loop is somewhat fragile. For installation and use, it would be wise to mount the loop aerial inside something strong and protective.

Our use for the RFID equipment is to have our sketch make a decision based on the unique tag number. For example, it could be used as a switch to turn on and off something, perhaps an alarm system or a computer. It could control an electric door strike (lock), or activate a series of lights to one’s personal preference. The possibilities are only limited by your imagination. I hope that with your existing knowledge you can implement this RFID equipment into your next prototype or product.

First of all, let’s do a basic test – what happens when we read a tag?  To do this we need to connect our reader to the Arduino or compatible board, and see what comes out when we read a card. The connections are quite simple:

 

exam15p1ss

Note that all the GND pins are connected together. Now upload the following sketch:

You may need to remove the wire from the RFID reader to Arduino before uploading the sketch, then replacing it after the upload. From the reader data sheet.pdf (our version is the TTL model), the reader sends out serial data from the TX pin at 9600 bps. We will read that data using the serial input (digital pin zero on the board) and display it on the serial monitor box to see what it looks like. The LED activates (rather dimly) when reading is taking place. Here is the sketch to use.

Once the sketch has been uploaded, open your serial monitor box, and wave a tag over the antenna. You should have a reading similar to the video below, however your tag number will be different.

Excellent – simple numbers that we can work with. For example, one of my tags returns: 2,51,69,48,48,49,65,51,53,70,50,69,51,3 and another returns 2,51,67,48,48,67,69,49,48,68,53,51,55,3. Note that both start with 2 and end with 3, so the unique tag details are the 12 integers between the 2 and 3. One could read the data as characters or hexadecimal numbers by altering the data type in the sketch from int to byte, but for simplicity I am working in integers. Now all we need to do is fashion sketches to recognise the tag number(s) we want to use, and perform an action based on which tag number is used (or do something when a tag is read, but not the tag you want).

In the following example, (download) the sketch reads the 14 integers returned from the card reader when a tag is swiped. These integers are placed into a fourteen element array, which is then compared against arrays holding the numbers my “allowed” tags. If an allowed tag is read, the green LED comes on, if a disallowed tag is read, the red LED comes on. Of course you could have the digital outputs controlling other things using a switching transistor or a relay. Below is the schematic:

example15p2schematicss

And a short video in action:

Excellent – now we are getting close to something useful. The example above could make a simple door control, or an over-engineered cookie jar.

Now for some more practical uses of RFID and Arduino. In the past we have worked with real time in many chapters, and also have stored data using a microSD card shield

We will build on our previous example by adding time and date logging for all accesses to the system, successful or not. This could be used again for door access, payroll calculations as a modern-day punch-clock, or even a simple logging device to see what time the children arrive home when you aren’t around to check. So we will need a microSD shield, and some sort of DS1307 breakout board or shield.

When using more than one shield together, be mindful of the pins you will need to use. For example, my DS1307 shield uses analogue 4 and 5 (for I2C interface), and the microSD shield uses digital 10 to 13.

The sketch for this example is quite simple – the good thing about programming for Arduino is that just like the hardware shields, sketch procedures and functions can be very modular and reused quite easily. If you are unsure about the microSD shield, please read my instructional review. Most of the code can be copied from that microSD shield article’s demonstration sketch, which I have done for this example. The sketch writes the time, date, tag number, and read status (accepted/rejected).

However there is one caveat when using the microSD shield – the file needs to be closed before the card can be removed for examination. In practical use, our RFID system would be usually on most of the time, so a method will needed to activate the card write function. This has been implemented with a function bossMode() that is called when a certain tag is read – one may call this the supervisor’s card. Once this particular tag is read, the file is annotated as closed, reading stops, and the LEDs blink alternately when it is safe to remove the card. A simple reset after the card is reinserted will start the reading again.

Here is the sketch. The schematic is the same as Example 15.2, with a few simple additions – the use of the microSD card shield, and the DS1307 real time clock shield. If you are using a DS1307 breakout board wired in separately, please use the following schematic as a guide:

ds1307shield2

Now here is a short video clip, with the addition of the ‘boss mode’ shutdown sequence:

And finally, here is an example of the text file that was produced from a recent test run:

example15p3datalog

As you can see, it is easy to reproduce expensive time-keeping systems with our own equipment and some time. We have some RFID projects in … the project section.

LEDborder

Have fun and keep checking into tronixstuff.com. Why not follow things on twitterGoogle+, subscribe  for email updates or RSS using the links on the right-hand column, or join our Google Group – dedicated to the projects and related items on this website. Sign up – it’s free, helpful to each other –  and we can all learn something.

Posted in 125 kHz, arduino, ELB149C5M, lesson, microcontrollers, RDM630, RDM6300, rfid, RFR101A1M, RFR103B2B, sensor, tronixstuff, tutorialComments (8)


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