Tag Archive | "TMP36"

Moving Forward with Arduino – Chapter 16 – Ethernet

Use Ethernet with Arduino in chapter sixteen of “Getting Started with Arduino!” by John Boxall – A tutorial on the Arduino universe. The first chapter is here, the complete series is detailed here.

[Updated 09/01/2013]

In this instalment we will introduce and examine the use of Ethernet networking with Arduino systems. This tutorial covers receiving data from an Arduino over the Internet. If you are interested in controlling an Arduino over the Internet, see here. It will be assumed that you have a basic understanding of computer networking, such as the knowledge of how to connect computers to a hub/router with RJ45 cables, what an IP and MAC address is, and so on. Furthermore, here is a good quick rundown about Ethernet.

First of all, you will need an Ethernet shield. There are a few on the market, such as the original version by the Arduino team. Readers of my articles will know my preference is for the Australian-designed Freetronics line of hardware, so I will be using their EtherTen – which combines an Arduino Uno-compatible board with an Ethernet shield. Plus it also has some interesting power-over-Ethernet features which you can read about here. However as long as your Arduino Ethernet shield has the W5100 controller IC – you’re fine.

Now, let’s get started!

This is an ethernet shield on top of an Arduino-compatible board. Nothing new here – just a nice RJ45 socket which you connect to your router/hub/modem with a patch lead:

shieldbss

First of all, let’s do something quick and easy to check that all is functional. Open the Arduino IDE and select File > Examples > Ethernet > Webserver. This loads a simple sketch which will display data gathered from the analogue inputs on a web browser. However don’t upload it yet, it needs a slight modification.

You need to specify the IP address of the ethernet shield – which is done inside the sketch. This is simple, go to the line:

And alter it to match your own setup. For example, in my home the router’s IP address is 10.1.1.1, the printer is 10.1.1.50 and all PCs are below …50. So I will set my shield IP to 10.1.1.77 by altering the line to:

You also have the opportunity to change your MAC address. Each piece of networking equipment has a unique serial number to identify itself over a network, and this is normall hard-programmed into the equipments’ firmware. However with Arduino we can define the MAC address ourselves. If you are running more than one ethernet shield on your network, ensure they have different MAC addresses by altering the hexadecimal values in the line:

However if you only have one shield just leave it be. There may be the very, very, statistically rare chance of having a MAC address the same as your existing hardware, so that would be another time to change it. Once you have made your alterations, save and upload the sketch to your Arduino or compatible board. If you haven’t already, disconnect the power and add your Ethernet shield.

Now, connect the shield to your router or hub with an RJ45 cable, and the Arduino board to the power via USB or external power supply. Then return to your computer, and using your web browser, enter your Ethernet shield’s IP address into the URL bar. The web browser will query the Ethernet shield, which will return the values from the analogue ports on the Arduino board, as such:

As there isn’t anything plugged into the analog inputs, their value will change constantly. Neat – your Arduino is now serving data over a network. It is quite motivating to see it actually work.

At this point – please note that the Ethernet shields use digital pins 10~13, so you can’t use those for anything else. Some Arduino Ethernet shields may also have a microSD card socket, which also uses another digital pin – so check with the documentation to find out which one. If you are considering using an Arduino Mega and Ethernet – check out the EtherMega.

Nevertheless, now that we can see the Ethernet shield is working we can move on to something more useful. Let’s dissect the previous example in a simple way, and see how we can distribute and display more interesting data over the network. For reference, all of the Ethernet-related functions are handled by the Ethernet Arduino library. If you examine the previous sketch we just used, the section that will be of interest is:

Hopefully this section of the sketch should be familiar – remember how we have used serial.print(); in the past when sending data to the serial monitor box? Well now we can do the same thing, but sending data from our Ethernet shield back to a web browser – on other words, a very basic type of web page. However there is something you may or may not want to  learn in order to format the output in a readable format – HTML code. I am not a website developer (!) so will not delve into HTML too much.

However if you wish to serve up nicely formatted web pages with your Arduino and so on, here would be a good start. In the interests of simplicity, the following two functions will be the most useful:

Client.print (); allows us to send text or data back to the web page. It works in the same way as serial.print(), so nothing new there. You can also specify the data type in the same way as with serial.print(). Naturally you can also use it to send data back as well. The other useful line is:

this sends the HTML code back to the web browser telling it to start a new line. The part that actually causes the carriage return/new line is the <br /> which is an HTML code (or “tag”) for a new line. So if you are creating more elaborate web page displays, you can just insert other HTML tags in the client.print(); statement.

Note that the sketch will only send the data when it has been requested, i.e. received a request from the web browser. So let’s put our new knowledge into action with some simple sensor hardware – measuring temperature and pseudo-light levels. In chapter fourteen we did this and sent the results over the air using XBee wireless modules. Now we shall make that data available to a web browser instead.

We will need:

  • Arduino Uno or compatible board and Ethernet shield, or
  • Freetronics EtherTen
  • Analog Devices TMP36 temperature sensor
  • 10 k ohm resistor
  • light-dependent resistor/photocell

Here is the schematic for the circuit:

example16p1sch

and in real life. If you were to construct a permanent application, the Freetronics shield is great as you have all that prototyping space:

exam16p1hardss

and download the sketch from here. Finally, the example in action, on the desktop PC:

exam16p1chrome

… and on a phone via my internal wireless access point (the screen is a little fuzzy due to the adhesive screen protector):

exam16p1desiress

Now you can see how easy it is to send data from your Arduino via an Ethernet network to a web browser. But that is only to a local web browser. What if I wanted to read that data using my phone from an Internet cafe in downtown Vientiane? It can be done, but is a little bit tricky for the uninitiated – so let’s get initiated!

You will need a static IP address – that is, the IP address your internet service provider assigns to your connection needs to stay the same. If you don’t have a static IP, as long as you leave your modem/router permanently swiched on your IP shouldn’t change.

However, if your internet service provider cannot offer you a static IP at all, you can still move forward with the project by using an organisation that offers a Dynamic DNS. These organisations offer you your own static IP hostname (e.g. mojo.monkeynuts.com) instead of a number, keep track of your changing IP address and linking it to the new hostname. From what I can gather, your modem needs to support (have an in-built client for…) these DDNS services. As an example, two companies are No-IP and DynDNS.com. Please note that I haven’t used those two***, they are just offered as examples.

Now, to find your IP address, usually this can be found by logging into your router’s administration page. For this example, if I enter 192.168.0.1 in a web browser, and after entering my modem administration password, the following screen is presented:

wanip

What you are looking for is your WAN IP address, as artistically circled above. To keep the pranksters away, I have blacked out some of my address. The next thing to do is turn on port-forwarding. This tells the router where to redirect incoming requests from the outside world. When the modem receives such a request, we want to send that request to the port number of our Ethernet shield. Using the Server server(80); function in our sketch has set the port number to 80. Each modem’s configuration screen will look different, but as an example here is one:

bobportfwdss

So you can see from the line number one, the inbound port numbers have been set to 80, and the IP address of the Ethernet shield has been set to 192.168.0.77 – the same as in the sketch. After saving the settings, we’re all set. The external address of my Ethernet shield will be the WAN:80, e.g.  213.123.456.128:80 into the browser of a web device will contact the lonely Ethernet hardware back home. Furthermore, you may need to alter your modem’s firewall settings, to allow the port 80 to be “open” to incoming requests. Please check your modem documentation for more information on how to do this.

Now from basically any Internet connected device in the free world, I can enter my WAN and port number into the URL field and receive the results. For example, from a phone when it is connected to the Internet via 3.5G mobile data:

How neat is that? The web page, not the phone. Well, the phone is pretty awesome too.

OK, it’s just the temperature – but with your other Arduino knowledge from our tutorials and elsewhere – you can wire up all sorts of sensors, poll them from your Arduino and use the Ethernet shield and an Internet connection to access that data from anywhere. Here are some applications that spring to mind, all can be made possible with details from our previous tutorials:

  • Sensitive temperature monitoring (e.g. a smoke house, tropical fish tank, chemical storage room, and so on);
  • “Have the children come home from school?” – children must swipe their RFID tag when they arrive home. Arduino stores time and tag number, which can be converted into display data for web output;
  • For single room-mates – perhaps a remote, high-tech version of a necktie on a doorknob… when the “busy” flatmate arrives home, they turn a switch which is read by the Arduino, and is then polled by the sketch – the other flatmates can poll from their phone before coming home;
  • Using reed switch/magnet pairs, you could monitor whether important doors or windows (etc.) were open or closed.
  • A small RFID could be placed on the collar of your pet – two RFID readers on each side of a cat/dog flap door. Using simple logic the Arduino could calculate if the pet was inside or outside, and the last time the pet went through the door.
  • send twitter messages

The possibilities are only limited by your imagination or requirements.

LEDborder

Have fun and keep checking into tronixstuff.com. Why not follow things on twitterGoogle+, subscribe  for email updates or RSS using the links on the right-hand column, or join our Google Group – dedicated to the projects and related items on this website. Sign up – it’s free, helpful to each other –  and we can all learn something.

Posted in arduino, DEV-09026, education, ethernet, etherten, learning electronics, lesson, microcontrollers, shield, tronixstuff, tutorialComments (13)

Moving Forward with Arduino – Chapter 14 – XBee introduction

Learn how to use XBee wireless data transceivers with Arduino. This is part of a series originally titled “Getting Started with Arduino!” by John Boxall – A tutorial on the Arduino universe. The first chapter is here, the complete series is detailed here.

Updated 02/03/2013

We will examine the Series 1 XBee wireless data transceivers from Digi in the USA. Although in the past we have experimented with the inexpensive 315MHz transmit/receive pair modules (chapter 11), they have been somewhat low in range and slow with data transmission. The XBee system changes this for the better.

First of all, what is an Xbee module? It is a very small piece of hardware that can connect wirelessly with another using the Zigbee communication protocols. There are many different models, including aerial types and power outputs. In this tutorial we’re using Series One XBees.

From Wikipedia, Zigbee is:

ZigBee is a specification for a suite of high level communication protocols using small, low-power digital radios based on the IEEE 802.15.4-2003 standard for wireless home area networks (WHANs), such as wireless light switches with lamps, electrical meters with in-home-displays, consumer electronics equipment via short-range radio. The technology defined by the ZigBee specification is intended to be simpler and less expensive than other WPANs, such as Bluetooth. ZigBee is targeted at radio-frequency (RF) applications that require a low data rate, long battery life, and secure networking.

Phew. For this chapter I will try and keep things as simple as possible to start off with. Here is an image of a typical Xbee unit:

Note that the pin spacing is small than 2.54mm, so you cannot just drop these into a breadboard. However for the purposes of our experimenting more equipment is needed. Therefore I am making use of this retail package from Sparkfun:

xbeeretailpackopenedsmall

This bundle includes two Xbee modules, an Xbee shield to connect one of the modules to an Arduino Uno-style board. When it comes time to solder the sockets into your shield, the best way is to insert them into another shield that is upside down, then drop the new shield on top and solder. For example:

solder2s

Finally, the bundle also includes a USB Explorer board, which allows us to connect one Xbee to a personal computer. This allows us to display serial data received by the Xbee using terminal software on the PC. One can also adjust certain Xbee hardware parameters by using the explorer board such software.

Let’s do that now. You will need some terminal software loaded on your computer. For example, Hyperterminal or Realterm. Plug an Xbee into the explorer board, and that into your PC via a USB cable. Determine which port (for example COM2:) it is using with your operating system, then create a new terminal connection. Set he connection to 9600 speed, 8 bits, no parity, 1 stop bit and hardware flow control. For example, in Hyperterminal this would look like:

Once you have established the connection, press “+++” (that is, plus three times, don’t press enter) and wait. The terminal screen should display “OK”. This means you are in the XBee configuration mode, where we can check the settings and change some parameters of the module. Enter “ATID” and press enter. The terminal window should display a four-digit number, which is the network ID of the module. It should be set by default to 3332. Unless you plan on creating a huge mesh network anytime soon, leave it be. To be sure your modules will talk to each other, repeat this process with your other XBee and make sure it also returns 3332. However as this is the default value, they should be fine.

Now for our first example of data transmission, insert one Xbee into the explorer module, and the other into the Xbee shield. With regards to the Xbee shield – whenever it is connected to an Arduino board and you about to upload a sketch, look for a tiny switch and change it to DLINE from UART. Don’t forget to change it back after uploading the sketch. See:

shieldswitchss

We are going to use the two Xbee modules as a straight, one-way serial line. That is, send some data out of the TX pin on the transmit board, and receive it into the terminal on the PC. Now upload this sketch into your Arduino board. This is a simple sketch, it just sends numbers out via the serial output. Then set the switch on the shield back to UART, and reset the board. If you can, run this board on external power and put it away from the desk, to give you the feeling that this is working 🙂

Note: More often that not one can purchase AC plug packs that have USB sockets in them, for charging fruity music players, and so on.

acusbss

Or you might have received one as a mobile phone charger. These are great for powering Arduino boards without using a PC. Now ensure your explorer module is plugged in, and use the terminal software to connect to the port the explorer is plugged into. After connecting, you should be presented with a scrolling list of numbers from 0 to 99, as per example 14.1 sketch:

numbers

How did you go? Sometimes I used to get the COM: ports mixed up on the PC, so that is something to keep track of. If you are powering both Xbees from your PC using USB cables, double-check the terminal software is looking at the explorer board, as an Arduino transmitting serial data through an Xbee shield will still send the same data back to the PC via USB.

Now that we have sent data in one direction, we can start to harness the true power of Xbees – they are transceivers, i.e. send and receive data. Next, we’ll create an on-demand temperature and light-level sensor. Our arduino board will have a temperature sensor and a light-dependent resistor, and using the terminal on the computer, we can request a temperature or light-level reading from the remote board. More about temperature sensors in chapter two. First of all, the remote board hardware setup:

exam14p2boardss

… and the schematic:

exam14p2schemss

 

It never hurts to elevate your other Xbee:

xbeewallss

For the PC side of things, use the explorer board and USB cable. Here is the sketch. It is quite simple. The remote board ‘listens’ to its serial in line. If it receives a “1”, it reads the temperature, converts it to Celsius and Fahrenheit, and writes the result to its serial out line, which is sent over our Xbee data bridge and received by the host computer. A “2” will result in the analogue value of the photocell to be sent back as a “light level”. Once again we use the terminal software to control the system.  Here is a quick video of the terminal in action:

The speed is quite good, almost instantaneous. By now hopefully you can see how easy it is to end some data backwards and forwards over the ether. The range is only limited by the obstacles between the Xbee transceivers and the particular power output of each model. With example 14.2, there were two double-brick walls between them. Furthermore, we can build fully computer-independent systems that can talk to each other, such as more portable remote controls, or other data-gathering systems. In the next few chapters, sooner rather than later.

LEDborder

Have fun and keep checking into tronixstuff.com. Why not follow things on twitterGoogle+, subscribe  for email updates or RSS using the links on the right-hand column, or join our Google Group – dedicated to the projects and related items on this website. Sign up – it’s free, helpful to each other –  and we can all learn something.

Posted in arduino, learning electronics, lesson, microcontrollers, RTL-11445, tutorial, wireless, WRL-09819, WRL-11215, xbeeComments (9)

Getting Started with Arduino! – Chapter Two

This is part of a series titled “Getting Started with Arduino!” – A tutorial on the Arduino microcontrollers. The first chapter is here.

I hope you have been enjoying these posts and learning and creating and making many things. Today’s post has several things: taking temperatures, sending data from the arduino back to your PC, opening a library, and some exercises that will help to consolidate your previous knowledge and help revise it.

Note – Using LCD screens has moved to Chapter 24.

First of all, we shall investigate another analogue sensor – a temperature sensor. As you can imagine, there are many applications for such a thing, from just telling you the current temperature, to an arduino-based thermostat control system. And it is much easier to create than most people would think – so get ready to impress some people!

Let’s say hello to the Analog Devices TMP36 Low-voltage temperature sensor:

TMP36

Tiny, isn’t it? It looks just like a standard transitor (e.g. a BC548) due the use of the same TO-92 case style. The TMP36 is very simple in its use – looking at the flat face, pin 1 is for +5V supply (you can connect this to the 5V socket on your arduino), pin 2 is the output voltage (the reading), and pin three is ground/earth (connect this to the GND socket on your arduino). Furthermore, have a look at the data sheet, it is quite easy to read and informative. TMP36 data sheet

The TMP36 will return a voltage that is proportional to temperature. 10 mV for each degree Celsius, with a range of -40 to 125 degrees.

There isn’t any need for extra resistors or other components – this sensor must be the easiest to use out there. However there is one situation that requires some slight complexity – remote positioning of the sensor. It is all very well to have the sensor on your breadboard, but you might want it out the window, in your basement wine cellar, or in your chicken coop out back… As the voltage output from the sensor is quite low, it is susceptible to outside interference and signal loss. Therefore a small circuit needs to be with the sensor, and shielded cable between that circuit and the home base. For more information on long runs, see page fifteen of the data sheet.

At this point we’re going to have some mathematics come into the lesson – sorry about that. Looking again at page eight of the data sheet, it describes the output characteristics of the sensor. With our TMP36, the output voltages increases 10 millivolts for every degree Celsius increase; and that the output voltage for 25 degrees Celsius is 750 mV; and that there is an offset voltage of 400 mV. The offset voltage needs to be subtracted from the analogRead() result, however it is not without vain – having the offset voltage allows the sensor to return readings of below freezing without us having to fool about with negative numbers.

Quick note: A new type of variable. Up until now we have been using int for integers (whole numbers)… but now it is time for real numbers! These are floating point decimals, and in your sketches they are defined as float.

Now we already know how to measure an analogue voltage with our arduino using analogRead(), but we need to convert that figure into a meaningful result. Let’s look at that now…

analogRead() returns a value between 0 and 1023 – which relates to a voltage between 0 and 5V (5000 mV). It is easier on the mind to convert that to a voltage first, then manipulate it into temperature. So, our raw analogRead() result from the TMP36 multiplied by (5000/1024) will return the actual voltage [we’re working in millivolts, not volts] from the sensor. Now it’s easy – subtract 400 to remove the offset voltage; then divide it by 10 [remember that the output is 10 mV per degree Celsius]. Bingo! Then we have a result in degrees Celsius.

If you live in the Fahrenheit part of the world, you need to multiply the Celsius value by 1.8 and add 32.

Quick note: You may have seen in earlier sketches that we sent a value to the serial output in order for the arduino software to display it in the serial monitor box. Please note that you cannot use digital pins 0 or 1 if using serial commands. We used Serial.begin(9600); in the void setup(); part of the sketch. You can also send text to the serial monitor, using Serial.print(); and Serial.println();. For example, the following commands:

would create the following line in the serial monitor (assuming the value of temperature is 23.73):

The temperature is 23.73 degrees Celsius

and send a carriage return to start a new line. That is the difference between the Serial.print(); and Serial.println(); commands, the extra -ln creates a carriage return (that is, sends the cursor to the start of the next line. Did you notice the 2 in the Serial.print(); above? You can specify the number of decimal places for float variables; or if you are using an integer, you can specify the base of the number being displayed, such as DEC, HEX, OCT, BIN, BYTE – decimal, hexadecimal, octal, binary, or byte form. If you don’t use the second paramater of Serial.print();, it defaults to decimal numbers for integers, or two decimal places for floating-point variables.

Now let’s read some temperatures! All you need to do is connect the TMP36 up to the arduino board. pin 1 to 5v, pin 2 to analog 0, pin 3 to GND. Here is a shot of the board setup:

example2point1small

And here is the sketch:

And there’s nothing like a video, so here it is. The measurements start at room temperature, then an ice cube in a plastic bag is pushed against the TMP36 for a moment, them held between two fingers to warm up again…



Quick note: the while() command. Sometimes you want a sketch to wait for user input, or wait for a sensor to reach a certain state without the sketch moving forward. The solution to this problem is the use of the while() command. It can cause a section of a sketch to loop around until the expression in the while command becomes true.

For example:

 

Anyhow, back to the next exercise – it’s now your turn to make something!

Exercise 2.1

Recently the cost of energy has spiralled, and we need to be more frugal with our heating and cooling devices. Unfortunately some members of the family like to use the air conditioner or central heating when it is not really necessary; many arguments are caused by the need for the heating/cooling to be on or off. So we need an adjudicator that can sit on the lounge room shelf and tell us whether it’s ok to use the heating or cooling.

So, create a device  that tells us when it is ok to use the air conditioner, heater, or everything is fine. Perhaps three LEDs, or a single RGB LED. Red for turn on the heat, blue for turn on the air conditioner, and green or white for “You’re fine, you don’t need anything on”. You will need to define your own temperature levels. Living here in north-east Australia, I’m going to have the air conditioner on above 28 degrees C; and the heat can come on at 15 degrees C.

Hopefully you are thinking about the voltmeter we made in chapter one, that should give you a starting point. If not, go back now and have a look. Otherwise, hop to it…
Anyway, here is my board layout…
exercise2point1small
You will need:
  • Your standard Arduino setup (computer, cable, Uno or compatible)
  • Either three LEDs or an RGB LED
  • 3 x 560 ohm 0.25 W resistors. They are to reduce the current to protect the LEDs.
  • a breadboard and some connecting wire
  • Analog Devices TMP36 temperature sensor (element-14 part number 143-8760)
  • a camera (optional) – to document your success!
And a sketch to solve the exercise:

And of course a video. For demonstration purposes, I have altered the values by making them very close, so it’s easier to show you the LEDs changing. The plastic bag used in the video is full of ice water.


Well that was interesting, I hope you enjoyed it and have some ideas on how to put temperature sensors to use. But now it is time to look at a library or two…
Quick note: As you know, there are several commands in the processing language to control your arduino and its thoughts. However, as time  goes on, people can write more commands and make them available for other arduino users. They do this by creating the software that allows the actual Atmel microcontroller interpret the author’s new commands. And these commands are contained in libraries. Furthermore, as Arduino is open-source, you can write your own libraries and publish them for the world (or keep ’em to yourself…) In the arduino IDE software, have a look at the Sketch>>Import Library… menu option. Also, check out here for more libraries! Now to put one to good use…

Update – LCDs were orginally explaned at this point, however they are now explained in their own article – chapter 24. Don’t forget to return to try out the examples and the rest of this chapter!
LEDborder
Exercise 2.2

This is our most complex project to date, but don’t let that put you off. You have learned and practised all the commands and hardware required for this exercise. You only need a little imagination and some time. Your task is to build a digital thermometer, with LCD readout. As well as displaying the current temperature, it can also remember and display on request the  minimum and maximum temperatures – all of which can be reset. Furthermore, the thermometer works in degrees C or F.

First of all, don’t worry about your hardware or sketch. Have a think about the flow of the operation, that is, what do you want it to do? For a start, it needs to constantly read the temperature from our TMP36 sensor. You can do that. Each reading will need to be compared against a minimum and maximum value. That’s just some decision-making and basic maths. You can do that. The user will need to press some buttons to display and reset stored data. You can do that – it’s just taking action if a digital input is high. I will leave the rest up to you.

So off you go!

You will need (this may vary depending on your design, but this is what we used):

  • Your standard Arduino setup (computer, cable, Uno or compatible)
  • Water (you need to stay hydrated)
  • 2 x 10k 0.25 W resistors. They work with the buttons to the arduino
  • Analog Devices TMP36 temperature sensor (element-14 part number 143-8760)
  • 2 little push buttons
  • a breadboard and some connecting wire
  • 16×2 character LCD module and a 10k linear potentiometer or trimpot (For LCD contrast)
  • Analog Devices TMP36 temperature sensor (element-14 part number 143-8760)
  • a camera (optional) – to document your success!

For inspiration, here is a photo of my board layout:

ex2p2boardsmall
… and a video clip of the digital thermometer in action.

And here is the sketch for my example – Exercise 2.2 sketch example. I hope you had fun, and learned something. Now it’s time for Chapter Three.

LEDborder

Have fun and keep checking into tronixstuff.com. Why not follow things on twitterGoogle+, subscribe  for email updates or RSS using the links on the right-hand column, or join our Google Group – dedicated to the projects and related items on this website. Sign up – it’s free, helpful to each other –  and we can all learn something.

Posted in arduino, LCD, lesson, microcontrollers, tmp36, tutorialComments (40)


Subscribe via email

Receive notifications of new posts by email.

The Arduino Book

Arduino Workshop

Für unsere deutschen Freunde

Dla naszych polskich przyjaciół ...

Australian Electronics!

Buy and support Silicon Chip - Australia's only Electronics Magazine.

Use of our content…

%d bloggers like this: