Tag Archive | "circuit"

Tutorial – Arduino and the MAX7219 LED Display Driver IC

Use the Maxim MAX7219 LED display driver with Arduino in Chapter 56 of our Arduino Tutorials. The first chapter is here, the complete series is detailed here.


Sooner or later Arduino enthusiasts and beginners alike will come across the MAX7219 IC. And for good reason, it’s a simple and somewhat inexpensive method of controlling 64 LEDs in either matrix or numeric display form. Furthermore they can be chained together to control two or more units for even more LEDs. Overall – they’re a lot of fun and can also be quite useful, so let’s get started.

Here’s an example of a MAX7219 and another IC which is a functional equivalent, the AS1107 from Austria Microsystems. You might not see the AS1107 around much, but it can be cheaper – so don’t be afraid to use that instead:

MAX7219 AS1107

 At first glance you may think that it takes a lot of real estate, but it saves some as well. As mentioned earlier, the MAX7219 can completely control 64 individual LEDs – including maintaining equal brightness, and allowing you to adjust the brightness of the LEDs either with hardware or software (or both). It can refresh the LEDs at around 800 Hz, so no more flickering, uneven LED displays.

You can even switch the display off for power saving mode, and still send it data while it is off. And another good thing – when powered up, it keeps the LEDs off, so no wacky displays for the first seconds of operation. For more technical information, here is the data sheet: MAX7219.pdf. Now to put it to work for us – we’ll demonstrate using one or more 8 x 8 LED matrix displays, as well as 8 digits of 7-segment LED numbers.

Before continuing, download and install the LedControl Arduino library as it is essential for using the MAX7219.

Controlling LED matrix displays with the MAX7219

First of all, let’s examine the hardware side of things. Here is the pinout diagram for the MAX7219:

MAX7219 pinout

The MAX7219 drives eight LEDs at a time, and by rapidly switching banks of eight your eyes don’t see the changes. Wiring up a matrix is very simple – if you have a common matrix with the following schematic:

LED matrix pinoutsconnect the MAX7219 pins labelled DP, A~F to the row pins respectively, and the MAX7219 pins labelled DIG0~7 to the column pins respectively. A total example circuit with the above matrix  is as follows:

MAX7219 example LED matrix circuit

The circuit is quite straight forward, except we have a resistor between 5V and MAX7219 pin 18. The MAX7219 is a constant-current LED driver, and the value of the resistor is used to set the current flow to the LEDs. Have a look at table eleven on page eleven of the data sheet:

MAX7219 resistor tableYou’ll need to know the voltage and forward current for your LED matrix or numeric display, then match the value on the table. E.g. if you have a 2V 20 mA LED, your resistor value will be 28kΩ (the values are in kΩ). Finally, the MAX7219 serial in, load and clock pins will go to Arduino digital pins which are specified in the sketch. We’ll get to that in the moment, but before that let’s return to the matrix modules.

In the last few months there has been a proliferation of inexpensive kits that contain a MAX7219 or equivalent, and an LED matrix. These are great for experimenting with and can save you a lot of work – some examples of which are shown below:

MAX7219 LED matrix modules

At the top is an example from tronixlabs.com, and the pair on the bottom are the units from a recent kit review. We’ll use these for our demonstrations as well.

Now for the sketch. You need the following two lines at the beginning of the sketch:

The first pulls in the library, and the second line sets up an instance to control. The four parameters are as follows:

  1. the digital pin connected to pin 1 of the MAX7219 (“data in”)
  2. the digital pin connected to pin 13 of the MAX7219 (“CLK or clock”)
  3. the digital pin connected to pin 12 of the MAX7219 (“LOAD”)
  4. The number of MAX7219s connected.

If you have more than one MAX7219, connect the DOUT (“data out”) pin of the first MAX7219 to pin 1 of the second, and so on. However the CLK and LOAD pins are all connected in parallel and then back to the Arduino.

Next, two more vital functions that you’d normally put in void setup():

The first line above turns the LEDs connected to the MAX7219 on. If you set TRUE, you can send data to the MAX7219 but the LEDs will stay off. The second line adjusts the brightness of the LEDs in sixteen stages. For both of those functions (and all others from the LedControl) the first parameter is the number of the MAX7219 connected. If you have one, the parameter is zero… for two MAX7219s, it’s 1 and so on.

Finally, to turn an individual LED in the matrix on or off, use:

which turns on an LED positioned at col, row connected to MAX7219 #1. Change TRUE to FALSE to turn it off. These functions are demonstrated in the following sketch:

And a quick video of the results:

How about controlling two MAX7219s? Or more? The hardware modifications are easy – connect the serial data out pin from your first MAX7219 to the data in pin on the second (and so on), and the LOAD and CLOCK pins from the first MAX7219 connect to the second (and so on). You will of course still need the 5V, GND, resistor, capacitors etc. for the second and subsequent MAX7219.

You will also need to make a few changes in your sketch. The first is to tell it how many MAX7219s you’re using in the following line:

by replacing X with the quantity. Then whenever you’re using  a MAX7219 function, replace the (previously used) zero with the number of the MAX7219 you wish to address. They are numbered from zero upwards, with the MAX7219 directly connected to the Arduino as unit zero, then one etc. To demonstrate this, we replicate the previous example but with two MAX7219s:

And again, a quick demonstration:

Another fun use of the MAX7219 and LED matrices is to display scrolling text. For the case of simplicity we’ll use the LedControl library and the two LED matrix modules from the previous examples.

First our example sketch – it is quite long however most of this is due to defining the characters for each letter of the alphabet and so on. We’ll explain it at the other end!

The pertinent parts are at the top of the sketch – the following line sets the number of MAX7219s in the hardware:

The following can be adjusted to change the speed of text scrolling:

… then place the text to scroll in the following (for example):

Finally – to scroll the text on demand, use the following:

You can then incorporate the code into your own sketches. And a video of the example sketch in action:

Although we used the LedControl library, there are many others out there for scrolling text. One interesting example is Parola  – which is incredibly customisable.

Controlling LED numeric displays with the MAX7219

Using the MAX7219 and the LedControl library you can also drive numeric LED displays – up to eight digits from the one MAX7219. This gives you the ability to make various numeric displays that are clear to read and easy to control. When shopping around for numeric LED displays, make sure you have the common-cathode type.

Connecting numeric displays is quite simple, consider the following schematic which should appear familiar by now:

MAX7219 7-segment schematic

The schematic shows the connections for modules or groups of up to eight digits. Each digit’s A~F and dp (decimal point) anodes connect together to the MAX7219, and each digit’s cathode connects in order as well. The MAX7219 will display each digit in turn by using one cathode at a time. Of course if you want more than eight digits, connect another MAX7219 just as we did with the LED matrices previously.

The required code in the sketch is identical to the LED matrix code, however to display individual digits we use:

where A is the MAX7219 we’re using, B is the digit to use (from a possible 0 to 7), C is the digit to display (0~9… if you use 10~15 it will display A~F respectively) and D is false/true (digit on or off). You can also send basic characters such as a dash “-” with the following:

Now let’s put together an example of eight digits:

and the sketch in action:


We have only scratched the surface of what is possible with the MAX7219 and compatible parts. They’re loads of fun and quite useful as well. And finally a plug for our own store – tronixlabs.com – which along with being Australia’s #1 Adafruit distributor, also offers a growing range and Australia’s best value for supported hobbyist electronics from DFRobot, Freetronics, Seeedstudio and much much more.

visit tronixlabs.com

Posted in arduino, as1107, COM-09622, LED matrix, lesson, max7219, part review, tronixlabs, tronixstuff, tutorial

Various 555 Timer circuits

Hello readers

The purpose of this article is to follow on from our explanation of the 555 timer IC by demonstrating some simple yet interesting, noisy and plain annoying uses of the 555. They are by no means that complex, and intended to help move theory into practice.

Button de-bouncer

De-bouncer? How does one bounce a button in the first place? Many years ago I bounced a button on the arcade Sonic the Hedgehog – hit it so hard it popped out and bounced over the table… But seriously, when working with digital logic circuits, you may need to use  a momentary button to accept user input. For example, to pulse a trigger or so on. However with some buttons, they are not all that they seem to be. You press them once, but they can register multiple contacts – i.e. register two or more ‘presses’ for what seems like only one press. This could possibly cause trouble, so we can use a 555 timer monostable circuit to solver the problem. In our de-bounce example, when the button is pressed, the output is kept at high for around half a second. Here is the schematic:


What we have is a basic monostable timer circuit. For my example the output delay (t) is to be half a second. The formula for t is: t=1.1xR1xC1. The closest resistor I had at hand was 2k ohms, so to find the required value for C1, the formula is rearranged into: C1=t/(1.1xR1). Substituting the values for t and R1 gives a value of C1 as 227.274 uF. So for C1 we have used a 220 uF capacitor.

Now for a visual demonstration of the de-bouncer at work. In the following video clip, the oscilloscope is displaying the button level on the lower channel, and the output level on the upper channel. The button level when open is high, as the 555 requires a low pulse to activate. The output level is normally low. You can see when the button is pressed that the button level momentarily drops to low, and then the output level goes high for around half a second:

Make some noise

As we know the 555 can oscillate at frequencies from less than 1Hz to around 500 kHz. The human ear can theoretically hear sounds between (approximately) 20 and 20 kHz. So if we create an astable timing circuit with an output frequency that falls within the range of the human ear, and connect that output to a small speaker – a range of tones can be emitted.

The circuit required is a standard 555 astable, with the output signal heading through a small 8 ohm 0.25 watt speaker and a 4.7 uF electrolytic capacitor to ground. The capacitor stops any DC current flowing to ground, without this we will overload the current-handling ability of the 555. (I couldn’t help myself by trying it without the capacitor – pulled 550 mA from the 555 before it stopped working…). To choose the values of R1 and C1 to emit out required frequency, the following formula is used: f (frequency) = 1.4 / {(R1 + [2 x R2]) x C1}. To cover the range required, a 100k ohm trimpot was used for R1. Here is the resulting schematic:


The input voltage can fall within the specification of the 555, however for optimum results a supply of between 5 and 9 volts DC should be used. In the following demonstration, we used a 9V supply. The purpose of the video is to learn the relationship between the tones and their frequencies. You can see the frequency on my old counter and hopefully hear the result:

Our next example is to create a  siren effect, using two 555 circuits – one for a low frequency and one for a high frequency. To determine the value for R1 for the low and high frequency, I used the previous circuit and chose two tones that were quite different, and measured the resistance of the trimpot (R1) at those frequencies. My R1 value for the ‘low’ tone is 82k ohm and 36k ohm for the ‘high’ frequency.

The switching between low and high frequency will be handled by a 4047 multivibrator – the Q and Q outputs will control NPN transistors. The transistors are used as switches to allow current to flow from the supply to the 555 high or low tone circuit. We use this method as the 4047 is not able to source enough current to drive the 555 circuits. Here is the schematic:


Don’t forget to connect pin 14 of the 4047 to supply voltage. This circuit has been tested with a supply voltage between 5 and 12 volts. As the supply voltage increases, so does the amplitude of the square wave emanating from the 555 output pins, which in turn in creases the volume of the siren. At 5 volts, the entire circuit drew only 20 milliamps. Speaking of which, you can listen to a recording of the output here. If you wish to alter the time for each tone, adjust the value of what is the 47k ohm resistor on pins 2 and 3 of the 4047.

In the meanwhile have fun and keep checking into tronixstuff.com. Why not follow things on twitterGoogle+, subscribe  for email updates or RSS using the links on the right-hand column? And join our friendly Google Group – dedicated to the projects and related items on this website. Sign up – it’s free, helpful to each other –  and we can all learn something.

Posted in 4047, 555, arduino, COM-09273, education, learning electronics, lesson, tutorialComments (0)

Review – CD4047 Astable/Monostable Multivibrator

Hello readers!

Today we are going to examine an older but still highly useful integrated circuit – the 4047 Astable/Monostable multivibrator:


My reason for doing this is to demonstrate another way to create a square-wave output for digital circuits (astable mode) and also generate single pulses (monostable mode). Sometimes one can get carried away with using a microcontroller by default – and forget that there often can be simpler and much cheaper ways of doing things. And finally, the two can often work together to solve a problem.

What is a multivibrator? In electronics terms this means more than one vibrator. It creates an electrical signal that changes state on a regular basis (astable) or on demand (monostable). You may recall creating monostable and astable timers using the 555 timer described in an earlier article. One of the benefits of the 4047 is being able to do so as well, but with fewer external components. Here is the pinout diagram for a 4047 (from the Fairchild data sheet):

Note that there are three outputs, Q, Q and OSC out. Q is the normal output, Q is the inverse of Q – that is if Q is high, Q is low – at the same frequency. OSC output provides a signal that is very close to twice the frequency of Q. We will consider the other pins as we go along. In the following small video, we have LEDs connected to all three outputs – you can see how Q and Q alternate, and the increased frequency of OSC out:

That was an example of the astable mode.  The circuit used is shown below. The only drawback of using a 4047 is that you cannot alter the duty cycle of your astable output – it will always be 50% high and 50% low. The oscillator output is not guaranteed to have a 50% duty cycle, but comes close. The time period (and therefore the frequency) is determined by two components – R1 and the capacitor:

[Quick update – in the schematic below, also connect 4047 pin 14 to +5V]


The values for R2~R4 are 560 ohms, for the LEDs. R1 and the capacitor form an RC circuit, which controls the oscillation frequency. How can we calculate the frequency? The data sheet tells us that time (period of time the oscillator is ‘high’) is equal to 4.4 multiplied by the value of R1 and the capacitor. As the duty cycle is always 50%, we double this value, then divide the result into one. In other words:

And as the frequency from the OSC out pin is twice that of Q or Q, the formula for the OSC out frequency is:

However the most useful formula would allow you to work with the values of R and C to use for a desired frequency f:

When calculating your values, remember that you need to work with whole units, such as Farads and Ohms- not microfarads, mega-ohms, etc. This chart of SI prefixes may be useful for conversions.

The only thing to take note of is the tolerance of your resistor and capacitor. If you require a certain, exact frequency try to use some low-tolerance capacitors, or replace the resistor with a trimpot of a value just over your required resistor value. Then you can make adjustments and measure the result with a frequency counter. For example, when using a value of 0.1uF for C and 15 k ohm for R, the theoretical frequency is 151.51 Hz; however in practice this resulted with a frequency of 144.78 Hz.

Don’t forget that the duty cycle is not guaranteed to be 50% from the OSC out pin. This is shown in the following demonstration video. We measure the frequency from all three output pins, then measure the duty cycle from the same pins:

(The auto-ranging on that multimeter is somewhat annoying).

Now for some more more explanation about the 4047. You can activate the oscillations in two ways, via a high signal into pin 5 (pin 4 must then be low) or via a low signal into pin 4 (and pin 5 must be low). Setting pin 9 high will reset the oscillator, so Q is low and Q is high.

The monostable mode is also simple to create and activate. I have not made a video clip of monstable operation, as this would only comprise of staring at an LED. However, here is an example circuit with two buttons added, one to trigger the pulse (or start it), and another to reset the timer (cancel any pulse and start again):

[Quick update – in the schematic below, also connect 4047 pin 14 to +5V]


The following formula is used to calculate the duration of the pulse time:

Where time is in seconds, R is Ohms, and C is Farads. Once again, the OSC output pin also has a modified output – it’s time period will be 1.2RC.

To conclude, the 4047 offers a simple and cheap way to generate a 50% duty cycle  square wave or use as a monostable timer. The cost is low and the part is easy to source. As always, avoid the risk of counterfeit ICs and get yours from a reputable distributor. Living in Australia, mine came from element-14. Thanks to Fairchild Semiconductor for product information from their 4047 data sheet.

Have fun and keep checking into tronixstuff.com. Why not follow things on twitterGoogle+, subscribe  for email updates or RSS using the links on the right-hand column, or join our Google Group – dedicated to the projects and related items on this website. Sign up – it’s free, helpful to each other –  and we can all learn something.

Posted in 4047, education, learning electronics, lesson, part review, tutorialComments (41)

Review – Maxim MAX7219 LED Display Driver IC

[Updated 16/052013]

[After this article, check out our examination of real and fake MAX7219s]

In this article we are going to examine the Maxim MAX7219 LED display driver IC***. The reason for doing so is to show you how something that used to be quite complex can be made very simple – and that is what all this technology is for, isn’t it?

*** There is another IC from Austria Microsystems – the AS1107, which is drop-in compatible with the MAX7219, and can be cheaper. So shop around!

If you have ever tried to control lots of LEDs, or more than two or three 7-segment displays, or even an LED matrix, you realise that there is quite a lot of work to do on the software and hardware side of things. It usually involves lots of shift registers, switching transistors, and some nifty coding to get everything working. And then your code is too large, so the resulting display scans slow enough to see it flicker, etc.

Not any more! The MAX7219 combined with a great library (well for Arduino anyway) solves all the headaches in no time. After using it for the first time today I was briefly angry for not finding out about it sooner… better late than never. First of all, let’s have a look:


Yes, at first glance you may think that it takes a lot of real estate, but it saves some as well. This chip can completely control 64 individual LEDs, including maintaining equal brightness, and allowing you to adjust the brightness of the LEDs either with hardware or software (or both). It can refresh the LEDs at around 800 Hz, so no more flickering, uneven LED displays. You can even switch the display off for power saving mode, and still send it data while it is off. And another good thing – when powered up, it keeps the LEDs off, so no wacky displays for the first seconds of operation.

For more technical information, here is the data sheet: MAX7219.pdf. Now to put it to work for us – this article will demonstrate using an 8 x 8 LED matrix, as well as 8 digits of 7-segment LED numbers. First of all, let’s examine the hardware side of things. Here is the pinout diagram for the IC:


At this point I should mention it is designed for common-cathode display systems. One example would be an LED matrix, such as:

Another example is a multi-digit 7-segment LED module – current flows in through the anode pins, and each digit is illuminated only when its cathode is connected to ground. Such as this unit:


It has input pins for each of the eight LED elements, and four cathode pins, one for each digit. We can use two of these displays with the MAX7219 very easily, as you will see below. An example circuit to demonstrate using the matrix is below. Note the lack of resistors and transistors:


When using with (for example) an Arduino-type board, you would connect serial data in, clock, and load to three digital pins. The resistor is the hardware control via limiting current to the LEDs. My examples use a 1k0 1/4-watt value. If you are going to experiment with this value, refer to page 10 of the data sheet first. Furthermore, ensure the ground of the MAX7219 is connected to the ground of the microcontroller. The capacitors are used to reduce supply current ripple. And here is the demonstration circuit on the breadboard:


In the above photo, the five wires on the left are connected to the Arduino board (5V, GND, load, clock, data). The two wires from the terminal block head to a 5v power supply.

Now it is time to examine the software aspect, or how to control the MAX7219. My knowledge of microcontrollers is currently only Arduino, so we will use that for this review. Thankfully there is an excellent library that has been specifically written for the MAX7219 – the LedControl library. You will need to download and install the library from the LedControl page. If you need guidance on installing a library, please visit here.

The author has done a marvellous job of documenting his library, so I will briefly describe the basic functions you need to get things blinking. Here is a very basic demonstration sketch:

Using the lc.setLed() saves a lot of code, as the chip will hold the display on until it is told otherwise, you don’t need to program in a delay loop. You can just enter X and Y coordinates for the LED to switch on. To switch off the display to save power, use lc.shutdown(0, true); – replace true with false to switch it back on again. The video clip below is more of a detailed demonstration, using the schematic above, and this sketch:

Notice how altering the brightness up and down causes a nice “breathing” affect. However, don’t run that type of thing for too long, the MAX7219 does warm up nicely after about ten minutes of running all LEDs at once at full brightness…

Now it is time to examine how the MAX7219 deals with seven-segment LED display modules. It can handle up to eight digits, so I have two four-digit display modules to use. The anodes will be connected, so they behave as one single eight -digit unit. Here is the schematic:


And here is the demonstration circuit on the breadboard:


Now to examine the functions to control these displays. Once again, be sure to have the LedControl library as used with the matrix. Here is another simple sketch:

Once again, the use of the LedControl library certainly makes things easier. The difference between setChar() and setDigit is that the former can also write A~F, space, and a few other letters that are legible when used with a 7-segment display. Here is a video of the above sketch in action:

As you can see, driving all those LED digits is now a piece of cake. To think twenty years ago we used to muck about with various 4000-series ICs, decimal to BCD converters and so on. The MAX7219 just does it all. Now that I have learned how to make a nice huge display – there is only one thing to do… make another clock! It uses an Arduino board, and my RTC shield. Here is the sketch: maxclock.pdf, and the clock in action:

Well that’s enough blinkiness for now, I could spend a week making displays with the MAX7219. In all honesty, I can say that it makes life exponentially easier when trying to control more than one LED with a microcontroller. Therefore it really is highly recommended. So have fun!

If you found this article interesting, you would also enjoy the reviews of TM1638 and TM1640 LED display modules.

Have fun and keep checking into tronixstuff.com. Why not follow things on twitterGoogle+, subscribe  for email updates or RSS using the links on the right-hand column, or join our Google Group – dedicated to the projects and related items on this website. Sign up – it’s free, helpful to each other –  and we can all learn something.

Posted in arduino, as1107, COM-09622, lesson, max7219, part review, tutorial

Part review – NXP 74HC4066 Quad bilateral switch IC

Hello readers!

Today we are going to examine the 74HC4066 quad bilateral switch IC. My reason for writing this comes from a comment left by a reader on chapter nine of the Arduino tutorial. They suggested using a 4066 IC to control the cathodes of the LED matrix instead of resistors and NPN transistors. This was a good suggestion, however the 4066 can only switch a current of 10mA per pin. Luckily the 74HC4066 can handle up to 25mA per switch – so we’ll look into this instead.

First of all, let’s say hello:


This is the 14-pin DIP package. It is also available in surface mount, and other newer package styles. Although we are looking at an example from NXP, according to my main component supplier (element-14/Newark) this IC is also manufactured by Texas Instruments, ON Semi, ST Microelectronics and Fairchild. So, what is a quad-bilateral switch? Four switches in one IC. Here is a diagram:

Imagine a simple normally-open push button. You press the button, and current can flow through the switch. Using the 74HC4066, when current is applied to the E pin, current can pass through from the matching Y pin to the Z pin. As you can see above, there are four of these switches in the IC. This is where the benefit of the IC comes to mind, normally one might use a 1k ohm resistor and an NPN switching transistor as an electronic switch, and I have done so myself. But when you need a few of them, it can be easier to start using these 74HC4066s as long as the current requirements are met.

With regards to the current the IC can switch, Is, the maximum is 25mA per switch. This is more than enough to run a typical LED, TTL logic gate, etc. The other interesting parameter is the turn-on and turn off times – at 6 volts it can turn on in around 10 nanoseconds and turn off at around 13 nanoseconds (so a rough calculation – say it takes 30 nanoseconds to switch on and then switch off, that’s 33.3 million times per seconds (33.3 MHz). All these parameters and more are available from the data sheet (pdf). Someone correct me if I’m wrong!

That’s enough theory – let’s put it to work now. Our first demonstration is quite simple – just switch on and off some LEDs via a 74HC595 shift register and an Arduino. We send a number (0, 1, 2, 4, 8 ) to the shift register, which stays off, then sets pins Q0, Q1, Q2, Q3 high in order, which in turn activate the switches 1~4 on the 74HC4066. The 74HC4066 sends a current to each LED connected to the switch outputs.

Here is the schematic:


Laid out on the breadboard:


And the ubiquitous video:

And here is the Arduino sketch: demo1.pdf. Well that was interesting. I know these simple demonstrations may be… well a little simple, but after taking the time to build them from scratch you get a better understanding of the part and how they work. Practice makes perfect and all that. Anyhow, let’s have a look at something much more interesting – a very basic (!) digital to analogue converter. Consider the circuit below:


The 74HC4066 switches creates a final voltage through the sum of various currents being switched into the final output. First of all, here is a video of the switches being turned on and off one at a time:

and the corresponding Arduino sketch:demo2.pdf. The next video shows the results of sending decimal numbers 0~15 to the shift register – in effect continually adding the outputs of the pins until all pins are on, then in reverse:

and the corresponding Ardiono sketch:demo3.pdf.

Well I hope you found this part review interesting, and helped you think of something new to make. In conclusion I would consider the 74HC4066 easier and quicker for end user to use in projects (less pins to solder, etc) however using it could cost more depending on the volume required. Furthermore, this would only apply if the current restrictions of the IC are met.

So have fun and keep checking into tronixstuff.com. Why not follow things on twitterGoogle+, subscribe  for email updates or RSS using the links on the right-hand column, or join our Google Group – dedicated to the projects and related items on this website. Sign up – it’s free, helpful to each other –  and we can all learn something.

Notes: In writing this post, I used information from NXP, plus information and circuit inspiration from various books by Forrest Mims III.

Posted in 4066, 74HC4066, lesson, part review, tutorialComments (24)

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